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白洞:不可能的可能性 – 译学馆
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白洞:不可能的可能性

White Holes: An Impossible Possibility

让我们解决掉这个问题:几乎可以肯定 白洞并不真实存在
Okay, let me get this out of the way: white holes are almost definitely not a real thing
在整个自然中尚未发现
that can be found in nature.
你应该记得我说过……我们也许见过白洞?
So keep that in mind when I say…we might have seen one?
(间奏)
(INTRO)
理论上 白洞就是那些倒退的黑洞
In theory, white holes are black holes that are going backwards.
理论上来说
In theory.
你知道 一个黑洞是一个巨大的物质它能把其他东西吸入一个奇点
A black hole, as you know, is a giant object that sucks stuff into a singularity – a single
一个密度无限大的点 没有东西能逃离这个点
point of infinite density – from which there is no escape.
所以 白洞就是一种会从奇点驱逐所有物质的天体
So a white hole would be an object that expels matter from a singularity…and you’d never
你绝对没机会进去
be able to enter it.
白洞仅存在于数学中 然而2006年 我们观测到宇宙深处一束爆炸的光
White holes only exist in math. But in 2006, we saw an explosion of light out in deep space
我们难以用其他原因解释这个现象
that we can’t explain any other way.
这比你想的更加神秘可怕
It’s…even weirder than it sounds.
现实中 白洞违背了热力学第二定律 也就是说
In reality, a white hole would violate the second law of thermodynamics. This says that
宇宙中的熵是恒定的 或可以增大的
the amount of entropy in the universe can only stay the same or increase. It can never
但不能减少
decrease.
熵经常被人们认为是混乱但是 它更像是一种程度
Entropy is often described as disorder, but it’s more like a measure of how many different
就是描述在一定的时间 一个系统中的粒子能存在多少不同的状态
states that particles in a system can be in at any given moment.
像是如果你有一架钢琴 你把它碎成了木片 那么钢琴的熵增大了
Like, if you have a piano, and you throw it in a woodchipper, you’ve increased the entropy
因为碎片的钢琴堆可能有很多
of the piano. Because a pile of chopped-up piano splinters can be in lots and lots of
不同的结构……在碎片状态时
different configurations while still being…a pile of splinters.
但这些钢琴的碎片只有在保持一种特殊的状态时
But these piano splinters can really only be in one, very specific state in order to
才能成为钢琴
be a piano.
至少是……能演奏的钢琴
At least … a piano that works.
所以 黑洞会不停的增熵黑洞就像是宇宙中的木片粉碎机
So, black holes are great at increasing entropy! They’re the universe’s woodchippers: shredding
把天体粉碎成浆 只留下了一片辐射
entire stars into pulp, and leaving only a whiff of radiation.
但是你不能把一堆钢琴的碎片变成刨花再把它们变回去
But you can’t load your pile of piano splinters into the woodchipper, and run the thing backwards
重新变成一架钢琴这样会减熵 这是不能实现的
to get a piano again. That would decrease entropy, which is not allowed. And if white
如果白洞存在 本质上就是在减熵
holes existed, that’s essentially what they’d do.
为什么有人认为白洞本来就存在?
So why does anyone think white holes might exist in the first place?
额 它们最初被提出是数学的一种奇遇
Well, they were first proposed as a kind of mathematical oddity, because of Einstein’s
因为爱因斯坦的相对论
theories of relativity.
相对论的一个理论很棒 无论你的时间是向前或倒退
One of the many endearing quirks of relativity is that it doesn’t care whether you play time
如果时间可以在一个方向走那它也能轻易地走相反的
backward or forward. If time can go in one direction, it can just as easily go in the
方向
other.
所以 如果黑洞存在 那么白洞(黑洞的倒推)
So if black holes are a thing, then white holes – which are black holes played backward
也是存在的
– can also be a thing.
但是 因为相对论说时间可以前进或后退
But just because relativity says time can go in both directions, in practice it pretty
事实上 我们知道时间只能前进不能倒退
much sticks to one, as we all know.
即使白洞由于某种原因出现了 那也非常不稳定
So even if a white hole did somehow occur, it would be incredibly unstable. Because the
因为宇宙讨厌有人打破规则!所以白洞如果存在
universe DOES NOT LIKE IT when you break the laws of physics! So a real white hole would
在它自身崩塌前 可能只会存在几秒钟
probably only last for a few seconds before it collapsed in on itself to become a black
就变成黑洞了
hole.
让我们回头看看2006年观测到的爆炸
Which brings us back to the explosion we saw in 2006.
NASA的雨燕卫星检测到那次爆炸 那是一次大规模的伽马射线暴:可能是能量最高
Detected by NASA’s Swift satellite on June 14, it was a huge gamma ray burst: the highest-energy
的爆炸形式 是太阳能量的百万兆倍
type of explosion possible, a million trillion times more energetic than the Sun.
它持续了……102秒
And it lasted for…102 seconds.
科学家们认为 在附近有超新星爆发时 伽马射线暴才会持续这么久
Scientists believe that gamma ray bursts only last that long during supernovas. But this
但是这次 GRB 060614号 没有超新星爆发伴随着它
one, labeled GRB 060614, didn’t have a supernova to go with it.
我们只能说 那是一道灼热的白光的爆炸 不知从何而来
As far as we can tell, it was an explosion of white hot light that came from nowhere,
随后便无影无踪
and then vanished.
假设白洞真的存在 即使这听起来难以置信 十分惊人且荒诞无稽
And while white holes remain incredibly, stupendously, ridiculously unlikely…that’s pretty much
那么这种爆炸就是我们想象中白洞的样子
exactly what we think one would look like.
一些物理学家提出了其他解释 证明这种现象 例如
Some physicists have offered other explanations for what it might’ve been — like a shock
被黑洞撕裂的中子星释放的冲击波 或是两颗中子星撞击发出的震波
wave from neutron star torn apart by a black hole, or maybe two neutron stars colliding.
但是这些原因只会释放最多两秒的波动 而不是
But events like these only release energy for two seconds at most — not a minute and
一分钟半
a half.
那么 白洞在自然中几乎不可能发生 但在学术层面
So. White holes in nature are as impossible as a thing can be, while still being technically
可能存在
possible.
然而只在学术中存在可能除非我们再次观测到2006年那样的爆炸
But they are technically possible. And until we see another explosion like the one in 2006
才可能进一步研究否则只能满怀期望的等待
that we could hopefully learn more from, we’ll just have to wait, and wonder.
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