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你更喜欢哪一只玩偶?婴儿道德观

Which Puppet Do You Like More? Baby Morals

来吧!心理学
Psych 2 Go
哲学家和心理学家多年来
Over the years, philosophers and psychologists alike
一直思索着分辨对错
have speculated over whether we are taught
是受教化所致
to know the difference between right ang wrong,
还是天生如此
or whether we are predisposed to understanding it.
道德的问题已在世间“徘徊”百年
The question of morality has lingered to hundreds of years,
以前的人们普遍认为
and previously it was widely believed that
人人生来如“白板”
a human is born a blank slate
所处的环境塑造了其的是非观
with their idea of right and wrong formed by their environment.
这一道德概念
This concept concerning morality
由18世纪哲学家让·雅克·卢梭提出
was proposed by famous 18th-century philosopher Jean Jacques Rousseau,
他认为婴儿生来并不具备的道德观
who stated that babies are born unknowing any sense of ethics,
是受后期教化的熏染而形成的
and they have to be educated to learn them.
多年来 这一理论一直广受大众推崇
This theory has been accepted by the general public for many years,
直至最近一种新理论的出现使
but recently, a new theory has risen
这一长期存在的问题得到解答
to answer this long-standing question.
凯伦·永利博士是耶鲁大学婴儿认知中心
Doctor Kren Wynn runs Yale University Infant Cognition Center,
即婴儿实验室的负责人
also known as the Baby Lab.
婴儿认知中心的团队研究员们针对
The team researchers at the Infant Cognition Center
婴儿行为的研究已有数十年之久
have been studying in baby’s behavior for decades,
大约在八年前
and beginning about 8 years ago
他们着手开展一系列实验以测试
they started to conduct a series of tests to examine
婴儿对于好与坏行为的理解
a baby’s understanding of good and bad behavior.
实验将以面向五个月的婴儿
This test will conduct by showing babies
表演一场节目的方式开展
(age five months old) to a public show.
演出内容为
The public show featured
一只黑白相间的猫试图打开箱子
a black and white cat trying to open a box,
但发现很困难
but finding difficulties in its attempts.
场景中也有两只身着不同颜色衬衫的兔子
The show also featured two rabbits in different colored shirts
实验者在测验阶段为婴儿表演了两个情景
and during this course, the babies are presented with two scenarios.
第一个场景 绿色衬衫的兔子木偶
In the first, the rabbit puppet with a green shirt
帮助尝试打开箱子的小猫
aids the cat in its attempt to open the box,
而在第二个场景中 身穿橘色衬衫的兔子
while during the second, the rabbit dressed in an orange shirt
故意以拍击搁板的方式
deliberately inhibits the cat’s ability
阻碍小猫打开箱子
to open the box by slamming the shelf.
演出过后 一名对兔子孰好孰坏
After the show, a staff member unaware
并不知情的工作人员
which is the good or bad rabbit
看向两只木偶 询问婴儿
behold both puppets and ask the baby
更喜欢哪一个木偶
which puppet he or she likes more.
而陪伴婴儿的妈妈们
The mother, who was usually there with the child,
则闭上眼睛以避免影响婴儿们的判断
would close her eyes so that she would not influence the baby’s decisions.
很明显 婴儿们无法通过对话表达看法
Obviously, the babies are unable to answer to dialogue,
但可以挑出自己最喜欢的玩具
but they will reach for the toy they like best.
实验结果为超过80%的五个月婴儿
The result is, more than 80% of the five-month-old baby
更喜欢那只帮助小猫的兔子
showed the liking towards the bunny that helped the cat.
当实验对象为3个月的婴儿时
And this number increased to 87%
测试比例上升至87%
when tested on three-month-old babies.
实验亦针对三个月大的婴儿
The study was also conducted on babies aged three months.
处于这一年龄段的孩子无法抓握物体
Those children at that age are unable to grab objects,
因此研究者选择另一种方式测验
so alternative techniques were used.
大量研究表明婴儿的
Numerous studies have shown that
目光会在喜欢的东西上停留较长时间
the baby will look at something longer if they like it,
反之则不会如此
and for short time if they don’t.
因此研究人员计算婴儿的目光
So the researchers calculated their chosen rabbit
停留时间较长的兔子数量
by which one they looked up longer.
这一实验结果似乎表明
This information seems to suggest that
我们拥有与生俱来的道德感
we were born with innate sense of morality
并未秉照卢梭的“白板说”进行发展
rather than the “blank” statement telly suggested by Rousseau,
但结果却未经得起推敲
however, the result isn’t appeal solid.
由于仍有几个问题未得到解决
This conclusion of inborn sense of morality
因此不能过早地下
cannot be drawn too quickly
“道德感与生俱来”的结论
as a few questions still remain.
如果考虑到存在
Rousseau’s theory could still be possible
婴儿在实验开始前的三个月内已
if we considered the possibility that babies had learned
学会辨别是非的假设
the difference between right and wrong
卢梭的理论便仍具可行性
in their three-month priority to experiment.
此外 五个月大的婴儿较比
Furthermore, more than five-month-old babies
三个月的婴儿更倾向于选择坏玩偶
chose the bad puppets than the three-month-old ones.
这是否暗示着越成熟的人
Does this suggest that the older you get,
道德感便会愈加消退?
the more you sense of right and wrong fades?
或仅仅是此阶段的孩子太小 不能明辨是非?
Or is it simply too early to tell at that age?
请在下方评论区说出你的看法
Leave a comment down below with your thoughts.
感谢观看
Thanks for watching,
喜欢的话 别忘了订阅哦
and if you enjoy, don’t forget to subscribe.
或浏览“来吧!心理学”的其它精彩内容
Also check out the other great contents from Psych2Go.

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视频概述

详述了玩偶实验的具体步骤,针对对象以及实验意义。

听录译者

小多荷

翻译译者

小多荷

审核员

审核团HL

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-LjiNNA7xBE

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