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大脑各个部分的功能 – 译学馆
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大脑各个部分的功能

Which Parts Of The Brain Do What?

1861年 一位病人来到了巴黎的一家医院
In 1861, a patient arrived at a Paris hospital
口中一遍一遍发着“Tan”这个音
saying the syllable “Tan” over and over again
他的医生保罗•布罗卡发现他在语言理解上毫无问题
His doctor, Paul Broca, found that the man could understand language without a problem;
他只是除了”Tan” 之外 什么都不会说
he just couldn’t say anything — besides “Tan”.
病人几天之后离奇地死亡
When the patient unexpectedly died a few days later.
布罗卡解剖了他的大脑 并发现大脑左前部脑叶
Broca dissected his brain and found a small bit of damage
有轻微破损 因此他断定
called the lesion on the left frontal lobe . Leaving him
这部分大脑一定是负责产生语言
to conclude that this part of the brain must be responsible for speech generation.
在那之后 科学家也只是最近才接受这一事实:
Back then, scientists had only recently accepted the idea that
我们用大脑思考 而不是我们的心脏
这也意味着那些用动物做的实验
and some kinda mean experiments
已使他们确信:
with animals had convinced them that
大脑的不同部分负责不同的思维活动
different parts of the brain were dedicated to different mental jobs.
布罗卡的“损毁法”似乎是绘制人类局部脑活动图的方法:
Broca’s lesion method seemed like the way to draw up a localized map of brain activity
医生发现病人的特定的认知缺陷
in humans: doctors found patients with specific cognitive deficits and then
然后将那些缺陷与脑组织损伤相匹配
matched those eficits up with the damaged parts of their brains.
他们从这些病人身上推断出:新记忆产生于河马体
From these patients, they deduced that new memories are formed in the hippocampus, fear
恐惧来自于扁桃体 我们用纺锤形脸区识别不同的脸
comes from the amygdala, and that we recognize faces using the fusiform face area.
然而 将大脑的各个部位与各种思维活动一一对应
However, there’s a big difference between correlating a certain part of the brain with
与证明该部位完全负责该项思维活动有很大区别
a certain mental task and proving that that part of the brain actually does that task.
于是 当90年代我们发明功能磁共振成像机器 并用来追踪脑部即时变化时
And, sure enough, when we developed the fMRI machine in the 1990s, to track moment-to-moment
从前的局部脑活动图果然迅速地开始瓦解
changes in brain activity, the old localized map of brain activity quickly began to unravel.
一方面 每次脑活动 脑皮层就似乎活动起来
For one thing, huge swaths of the brain seem to activate every time the brain does anything
这表明即使是最基础的思维活动也需要协作完成
at all, suggesting that even the most basic mental tasks require a coordinated effort.
结果表明 这种协作依赖于一种远程交流纤维网
And it turns out that this coordination relies on a network of long-range communication fibers.
事实上 这些纤维受损解释了为什么
In fact, damage to these fibers explained why some people with
有完整”布罗卡氏区”的人不能说话另外 这交流网也解释了
intact Broca’s areas couldn’t speak.And, the communications network also
为什么”布罗卡氏区”破损的人能说话
explained why some people with broken Broca’s areas could speak
因为这些纤维证明了将布罗卡区脑活动重新连接
Because the fibers proved able to rewire Broca’s tasks
到大脑的其他部位的可能性
to other parts of the brain.
但是特定的脑区在特定的脑活动中有所反应
But, just because a certain part of the brain lights up during a certain mental task doesn’t
并不意味那部分脑组织对思维活动起着至关重要的作用
necessarily mean that brain part is doing something critical to that task.
换句话说 人们证明出磁辐共振脑成像法
In other words, the MRI method of brain imaging turned out to have the same problem as the
与损毁法有同样的问题
lesion method.
幸运的是 我们可以将这两种方法结合起来以解决这个问题
Fortunately, we can get around this problem by putting the two methods together.
最近 研究人员对182个有脑损伤的人做了扫描检查——大多数是有弹伤的士兵
Recently, researchers performed scans on 182 people with brain lesions – mostly soldiers
——并让他们执行了一连串的脑力活动
with shrapnel wounds – and had them perform a battery of mental tasks.
然后 他们把所有的扫描结果搜集起来
Then, they put all the scans together to see
观察当实验者进行思维活动时 哪些脑区域活跃
which brain parts were always active when the subjects could perform a task,
而不进行思维活动时 哪些脑区域不活跃
and which parts were always turned off when they could not.
最终 我们绘制了大脑各部分合作关系的脑部示意图
As a result, we now have a map of the brain that shows which parts work together to help
如 理解语言 解决疑虑和记忆功能
us do brainy things like understand language, solve puzzles, and remember stuff.
但即便有了这些图 我们的大脑依然有很多需要我们思考的地方
But even with these maps, our own brains still give us a lot to ponder.
如我们或许永远无法理解为什么布罗卡氏患者只能说”Tan”
We may never, for example, why Broca’s patient could only say “Tan,” or whether there was
或他究竟想要告诉我们什么
something else he was trying to tell us.
此视频是由Audible. com赞助它是有声读物的领导厂商
This video was sponsored by Audible.com, the leading provider of audiobooks, including
包括奥利弗·萨克斯的书 《错把妻子当帽子》
Oliver Sacks’ 《The Man Who Mistook His Wife For a Hat》 a fascinating collection
书里有许多有意思 新奇的神经病学案件
of curious neurological cases like this one:
比如皮先生不但日渐一日不能辨别他人的面容
For not only did Dr P. increasingly fail to see faces
而且会产生视觉错误 把不是人脸的东西看成他人的脸
but he saw faces when there were no faces to see
有和蔼的脸 像马古先生的脸在街上时他可能轻拍
genially, Magoo-like, when in the street he might pat
消防水栓的顶部和停车计费器
the heads of water hydrants and parking meters,
把这些当做是孩子的脑袋
taking these to be the heads of children
登录www.audible.com/minuteearth读完Audible的选集后
peruse Audible’s huge selectionand download a book of your choice
选择下载自己喜欢的有声读物注册后免费试用30天
by going to www.audible.com/minuteearth and signing up for a free 30-day trial.
感谢Audible
Thanks Audible!

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视频概述

由病人的脑损伤致死,医生及研究人员研究脑部区域的控制,进而产生不同的发现,为各种疾病的预防等做出贡献。

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收集自网络

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o6JVMmkBF-I

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