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什么决定了你的音乐品味? – 译学馆
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什么决定了你的音乐品味?

Where Does Your Music Taste Come From?

你最近听碧昂丝的新歌了吗?
Have you been getting in formation with Beyoncé lately?
又或者你是"感恩而死"乐队的粉丝 认为70年代是音乐的巅峰时期?
Or maybe you’re more of a Deadhead and think the ‘70s were the peak of music?
很多关于所谓的音乐黄金年代的讨论都归结到个人的音乐品味上
A lot of debates about a so-called golden age of music come down to personal taste.
但是科学能帮助我们解释音乐品味究竟是从哪里来的吗?
But can science help explain where your music taste comes from?
根据一些心理研究 音乐品味与你关于不同的歌曲记忆有关
According to some psychology research, it’s probably linked to your memories of different
所以没有一个时代的音乐是永远不过时的
songs, so there’s not just one era of timeless tunes.
发展心理学家们发现成年早期形成的记忆
Developmental psychologists have noticed that the memories you form as a young adult tend
会更加清楚 即使在你变老的过程中
to stay more detailed, even as you get older.
所以 在20世纪90年代末 一些研究者想要弄清楚这个模式是否
So, in the late 1990s, some researchers wanted to see if this pattern was /also/ true for
适用于对于音乐的记忆 并且是否影响着人们的音乐品味
memories of music, and if that affected people’s music tastes.
为了做这个实验 他们收集了大量的歌曲 这些歌曲来自于
To do that, they collected a library of songs, with one that was popular in each year from
1935年到1994年每年的流行曲目
1935 to 1994.
接下来 他们测试了一些老年人和大学生 给他们播放每首歌的前20秒
Then, they rounded up some elderly people and college students, played them 20 seconds
然后询问他们以前是否听过 是否有任何关于
of each song, and asked if they had heard it before, if they had any memories related
这首歌的记忆 还有他们是否喜欢这首歌
to it, and whether they liked it.
老年组喜欢的歌曲是在他们青少年时期流行的 但是
The older group liked the songs that were popular when they were –teenagers best, while
M.C.
M.C.
Hammer并不是他们的菜
Hammer wasn’t their cup of tea.
这基本上正是心理学家所预测的结果
That’s basically what the psychologists expected.
但是青年组的测试结果就有一点令人惊讶了
But the younger group was kind of surprising.
他们最喜欢自己青少年时期的歌 但是同时他们也能辨认出并喜欢
They liked the songs from their teenage years best, but they /also/ recognized and liked
来自20世纪60年代末流行的歌曲-在他们还没有出生以前
popular songs from the late 1960s – before they were even born.
那时 研究者们认为20世纪60年代是音乐的黄金年代 因为
At the time, the researchers argued that the late 1960s was the golden age of music, since
甚至喜欢最新的邋遢音乐的孩子也在听这些歌曲
even the kids with their newfangled grunge were listening to those songs.
到这里这个研究就结束了 是吗?
Case closed, right?
但是……并不完全是
Well… not exactly.
良好的科学意味着尝试去复制结果
Good science means trying to replicate results.
所以如果20世纪60年代就是音乐的黄金时期的话 研究者再做一次研究 其他心理学家将会明白。
So if that /was/ the golden age, other psychologists would see it if they ran the study again.
十年后 一些研究者又做了一次实验 用的是1995年到2006年底美国Billboard榜单
A decade later, some researchers did just that, using audio clips from the top two singles
上前两名单曲的音频片段
from the 1955 to 2009 year-end Billboard charts.
他们只测试了大学生 并发现了相似的模式
They only tested college students, and found a similar pattern.
只有这一次 黄金年代似乎是在20世纪80年代初 而不是20世纪60年代末。
Only this time, the golden age seemed to be in the /early 1980s/, not the late 1960s.
这些心理学家得出了截然不同的结论 因为他们也询问了
These psychologists drew a different conclusion, though, because they /also/ asked how old
学生父母的年龄
the students’ parents were.
黄金年代歌曲来自于他们父母曾是青少年时期的歌
And the golden age songs were from when their parents would’ve been teenagers.
父母也在以某种方式给他们的孩子传递音乐品味 但这并不是
Somehow the parents were passing their music tastes onto their kids, but it’s not like
一种可以继承的音乐类型 例如乡土爵士乐或是新浪潮音乐
there’s a “funk” gene or a “new wave” gene that you can inherit.
相反地 这大概是曝光效应的一个例子:
Instead, this is probably an example of the mere exposure effect:
通常情况下 人们会更喜欢一个他们以前已经看到过或听到过的东西-无论
Basically, people report liking a thing more when they’ve seen or heard it before – whether
它是一首歌 或只是任意的形状
it’s a song, or even just random shapes.
尤其是当他们一开始并不是很关注这件事的时候
And it’s especially true when they’re not paying close attention to the thing at
像是父母在他们的孩子面前播放自己喜欢的歌
first, like if parents played their favorite songs around their young children.
所以可能从来都没有-或者将会有-一个音乐的黄金时代 但是一定有
So there probably never was – or will be – one golden age of music, but there’s
一个只属于你的音乐的黄金时代
likely a golden age /for you/.
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answers coming.
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