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钱是怎么来的?钱没有价值? – 译学馆
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钱是怎么来的?钱没有价值?

Where Does Money Come From?

我们生活在一个以钱为基石的世界
We live in a world based on money.
但钱为什么出现 又来自何方呢
But why do we need it and where does it come from?
剖析的第一部分
In part 1 of this therapy session,
我们讲到了价值创造和交易
we talked about value creation and trade.
如果你没看 先去看
If you haven’t seen it, watch it first.
故事本可以就此终结
The story could have ended right there
定格在我们制作陶罐和长矛
with all of us creating our pots and spears
互相交换的时刻
and trading them for each other.
这种与钱无关的交易便是以物易物
Such trade which doesn’t involve any money is called barter.
以物易物存在一个弊端 以古希腊为例
The problem with barter economy such as the one of Ancient Greece
该体制建立在互补互换的基础之上
is that they rely on the coincidence of wants.
一个多矛少罐的人要想交易
Someone with a surplus of spears and a lack of ports
必须恰巧找到一个多罐少矛的人
has to find this exact counterpart to enter a trade.
这种不确定性导致市场缺乏流动性
Having to wait for such coincidences results in an illiquid market,
也就是说 交易很少发生
meaning not a lot of trades are happening.
解决互补互换的弊端 需要
The problem of the coincidence of wants can be solved
大家约定俗成可分割的价值储藏手段
with a universal dividable storage of value,
也就是
also known as Opportunity.
机会
不 是钱
No, money.
就是钱 (好吧)
叮!
当互补互换的交易机制因交易双方
In a situation when a coincidence of wants doesn’t work
无法达成一致不运作时
because no two parties can agree on a trade,
给他们每人一枚硬币 难题就迎刃而解了
give everyone a coin and they can resolve their conundrum.
价值可以储藏 交易因此灵活
Value can be stored, trade becomes flexible,
大家都各取所需
and everybody gets what he wants.
交易盛行之处自然少不了广泛认可的钱
Wherever trade was common, there was some widely accepted form of money.
以17世纪的日本为例
In 17th century, Japan, for example,
当时以“石”(一定数量的大米)为单位
such a unit was Koku, an amount of the rice.
他们甚至尝试以“石”衡量全日本的财富
The empire even tried to measure its total wealth in Kokus
结果大概是2800万“石”
and arrived at around 28 million,
通过计算现在股市上的米价
which using the current stock market price of rice would be
大致相当于现在15亿美元
around one and a half billion US dollars in today’s money.
这有意义吗 我不知道
Does this conversion make sense? I don’t know.
但还没埃文·斯皮格尔钱多
But it’s less than one Evan Spiegel.
“钱 钱 钱”
“Money Money Money”
所以 多少钱才可以运转一个经济体呢
So how much money does an economy need to run?
这取决于价值创造量和发生的交易量
That depends on the amount of value creation and trade that are happening.
如果你生活在青铜器时代的一个村庄经济基础是面包陶瓷和一些水壶
If you live in a Bronze Age village with an economy
几千元就可以运转经济
thousands of units will do the trick.
一个更大的城市会需要几百万
Scale it up to a larger city, and you will need millions.
富有的国家需要几十亿甚至是几万亿
For wealthy nation, billions or even trillions.
如今 世界范围内的钱可以分成四类
Today, the worldwide amount of money is categorized into the 4 Ms.
M0指流通中的现金
M0 is the cash in circulation.
目前全球约有六万亿美元的流动资金
Worldwide, that’s currently around 6 trillion US dollars.
如果你把钱都存进猪形储钱罐
If you are saving all your money to piggy bank,
那存钱罐里的钱就是你所需的所有钱
then that’s the glass ceiling you’re eventually going to hit.
如果你把钱存进银行账户
Now if you save your money in a bank account, you can go places.
你可以一走了之 因为账户包含部分M1
Because then it becomes part of M1,
即流通中的现金加上活期存款
which is the amount of money that exists in cash plus the one which exists in demand deposits.
目前世界上约有300万亿的M1
The amount of M1 is currently around 30 trillion US dollars worldwide.
现在你把300万亿美金
Now you take those 30 trillion Washingtons and
存进储蓄账户和定期存款
add them to saving accounts and time deposits.
现在你存的那些钱 我们称之为M2
Now you will have the amount of money that we refer to as M2,
目前约700万亿美元
which is currently around 70 trillion US dollars.
最后再加上流动资金如机构货币市场基金
Finally add to that large liquid assets like the institutional money market funds
还有一堆有的没的 你就得到了M3
at a whole lot of other company, you arrived at M3.
换句话说 M3指的就是总货币供应量
In other words, M3 is the total amount of value
我们尽可能得用货币来衡量它
which we are actively representing in some currency.
目前约有800万亿美元
It’s currently around 80 trillion US dollars.
M3和全球GDP一样 这可不是巧合
This is, not coincidentally, about the same as the world GDP.
记住 钱最开始是贸易推动者
As remember, money started out as a trade enabler.
这些数字只是我们目前资产的快照
These numbers are just the current snapshot of where we are at.
过几年又会怎样呢 我也不知道
Where will they be in a few years? Well, I don’t know.
但可能比它们现在要高
But probably higher than they are today,
随着全球货币供应量稳定上升 又会怎样呢
as the worldwide amount of money supply is steadily increasing. How so?
货币创造和债务
“Money Creation & Debt”
创造货币有两种途径
There are two ways in which money is created.
一种是通过是由中央银行这类拥有特殊权利的公共机构
One is through the central bank, a public institution with special powers,
通常由国会授权
usually granted by the parliament.
其权力范围就包括印刷纸币
Among other things, it has the power to literally print money.
或是创造存款
What created in the form of credit,
存入商业银行或州政府
which then gets to commercial banks or states
通过向其购买资产和政府债券
by buying assets or government debt from them
这些资金随后被消费或贷出去
These dollars can then be spent and or lent out
最终进入到货币流通中去
which is how they end up in circulation.
然而 大多数国家的中央银行所占货币创造份额不足百分之十
However, in most nations, the central bank makes up for less than 10 percent of money creation.
大多数货币来自商业银行
Most of it is created by commercial banks
也就是大家口中的银行
or, as most people refer to them, just banks.
它们采用一种部分准备金银行的制度
They use a method called fractional reserve banking,
再把资金返还给你
which brings those back to you.
所以你从猪猪存钱罐拿出100美元存入银行
So you save your piggy bank money of a hundred dollars in an actual bank.
银行可以确信你不会第二天跑回来取钱
The bank can safely assume that you won’t run in tomorrow and claim back your entire money.
事实上 他们在玩一个统计学游戏
In fact, they play a statistical game.
他们默认所有客户的存款
They assume that of all their clients’ deposits
任何时候 所付利息都不超过百分之十
they won’t have to pay out more than 10 percent at any point in time.
所以他们可以借出去剩下的钱 是这样吗
So they can lend out the rest, right?
不仅如此 他们对外夸大资金总额九倍
Even better. They say the entire deposits are their 10 percent
因此他们可以创造和借出这笔钱的九倍
and they can create and lend out 9 times that amount of money.
所以凭着从你存钱罐里拿的100美元
So for a hundred dollars that they got from your piggy bank,
他们现在可以借出额外的900美元
they can now lend out another 900 dollars
而这些钱之前并不存在
in money that didn’t exist before .
像个[哔]魔术师 就这样凭空让钱变多了
Like a magician, they can just make it appear.
但因为它们不能真的印刷钱
But since they can’t literally print money,
它们就通过借贷来创造资金
they create it in the form of credit,
就像是 他们说“钱在那 相信我们就好
meaning they say it’s it’s there, just believe us,
但 别一次把钱花光”
but just don’t try ever to spend it all at once.
因为 如果每个人都这样一次花光
Because if everyone tried to do that,
那么就会造成银行挤兑
We’d have what is called the bank run.
大家就会意识到 实际上银行只有百分之十的钱
Everyone would realize that in fact only 10 percent of it was ever really there.
而银行又不想因为客户而破产
And because banks don’t like to be GG by their clients,
在这种情况下 他们必须限制每日提取金额
they will, in such situations, impose a daily drawdown limit.
然后向神祈祷 阿弥陀佛
Praying to their god, Monetus,
这种体制稳定 银行挤兑在
that the system stabilizes and the bank run stops before
钱用完之前会停止
the bank runs out of money.
中央银行控制这种货币创造的程度
The extent which the central bank can control this creation of money
只有这百分之十
is only by changing those 10 percent,
也称之为准备金比率
the so-called reserve ratio.
提高比率 也就意味着银行要提高相对储备金
If they increase it, it means that the banks need to keep a higher relative reserve,
也就是 可借出的钱变少 从而减少新创造的资金
which means that they can lend out less, thus create less new money.
这种控制指定货币创造的程度很大部分私有化
That level of control assigned money creation is largely privatized,
遵循供求规律
and follows the rules of supply and demand.
如果货币供应量增加 那么钱就会贬值
If money supply goes up, the price of a currency should drop
通货膨胀也随之而来
and we should expect inflation.
如果货币供应量减少 通货紧缩也不足为奇
If money supply goes down, we should expect the opposite.
货币供应量 搞定 那货币需求呢
Money supply. Check! What about money demand?
货币需求和债务
Money Demand & Debt
你有没有意识到不论钱哪来的 钱债都是不分家的
Did you notice how every dollar of money is connected to a dollar of debt? Whichever way money is created,
机构会发行货币或是替代品(某种程度上而言)
the institution which gave it away wants it or something else and return at some point.
这因此成了许多阴谋论的起源
While this has been the origin of many conspiracy TVs,
实际上 这只是对现实的反映:
it’s actually just a reflection of the fact
钱没有内在价值
that money has no inherent value,
只是价值的表现形式
but it’s just a representational value.
如果最终一美元不和一美元的债务等价
If a dollar bill won’t ultimately be the claim on a dollar of debt,
或换言之 一美元的价值有了其他表现形式
or, in other words, a dollar of value created by someone somewhere else,
那它不过是一张图画好看的纸罢了
then all it will be is just a piece of paper, with a nice drawing on it.
所以这意味着我们永远都摆脱不了债务吗
So does that mean that we can never get rid of our debt
只要货币在流通 就没人赶在它前面吗
as long as there are dollars in circulation and nobody can ever really get ahead?
不!时间就是个例子
No! Example time.
我们假设你去银行借钱
Let’s say you go to the bank, borrow money,
也就是说你贷款盖了一栋房子
meaning you take on debt to use that money to build a house.
所以最后你是拿着之前不存在的钱
So at the end of the day you took money that didn’t exist before
创造了之前不存在的价值
to create value that didn’t exist before and
换来了之前不存在的债务
exchange for debt that didn’t exist before.
6!这笔钱现在到了建筑公司那边
Cool. The money now entered the system through construction firms and whatever,
这表示货币供应量增加了 M0除外
which means that the money supply has increased
因为商业银行不印刷钱 可记得?
with the exception of M0, because commercial banks don’t print money, remember?
现在你每天工作
Now you go to work every day,
意味着你用自己的技术和时间换别人的钱
meaning you trade your skill and time for other people’s dollars,
这些钱可能有你最初
盖房子从银行借的那部分
some of which might as well be the dollars which your bank created for you to build your house in the first place.
太不可思议了
Mind blown.
最终你偿还了这笔钱
And eventually pay back the money,
意味着你取消了债务
meaning you cancel out your debt,
意味着你既没有存款 也没有债务
which means that you owns zero dollars and has zero debt.
繁琐程序过后 你得到的是房子的价值
What you keep at the end of all this rigmarole is the value of your house.
货币流动与价值创造过程密切相关
The flow of money occurs hand in hand with the value creation process
而潜在价值也因此得以创造
where underlying value is being built up.
我们每年创造的东西越多
And the more things we create each year,
那年创造出代表价值的货币也就更多
the more money we need to represent this value we created that year.
而广义货币供应M3 / GDP总额
While the amount of broad money supply M3/GDP is currently around 80 trillion dollars,
目前约为80万亿
逐步增长的价值总量或全球资产
the total amount of built up value or global assets
目前约为260万亿美元
is currently around 260 trillion dollars.
所以下次你破产怀疑银行搞阴谋害你时
So next time you were broke and believed the big bank conspiracy has screwed you.
要记住
Just remember:
钱没有内在价值 它只是交易的促成者
Money has no inherent value. It’s basically just a trade enabler.
日本过去把米当钱使 ⌒∇⌒
The Japanese used to have rice money. LOL.
货币创造大多是私人化的
Most money creation is privatized.
银行挤兑不好
Bank runs are bad.
去盖栋房子
Go build a house.
【音乐】
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视频概述

对于钱的起源进行了充分的解说。钱是没有价值的,只是价值的代表。通俗易懂,增长见闻,无毒无害,译者请大家放心食用。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jAg1YxW30Eg

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