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药物是从哪里来的呢

Where Do Our Drugs Come From?

大家好 这里是《分钟了解地球》我是凯特
Hi, this is Kate from MinuteEarth.
在每10种人们使用的药物中
For every 10 medications used by humans,
就有7种包含化学混合物 这些混合物最初
7 contain chemical compounds that originally
来自大自然 大部分来自细菌 真菌和植物
came from the natural world, mostly from bacteria,fungi, and plants.
因为这些低调的生物体是化学战争的主宰
That’s because these unassuming organismsare masters of chemical warfare.
不像别的生物可以移动
Unlike more mobile creatures,
那些生物受威胁时可以逃跑而植物 真菌
which can flee when they ’ re threatened, plants, fungi,
和细菌或多或少会比较固定
and bacteria are more or less stuck,
所以它们进化出专门的化学武器
so they ’ ve evolved machinery that makes specialized chemical
抵抗来自捕食者和同类的威胁
weapons as defense against threats – both from predators and from each other.
这样的战争无处不在
The battle plays out everywhere –
在山顶 海底 甚至
on the tops of mountains, bottoms of oceans, and even
就在我们脚下 比如
under our feet. There,
土壤中的细菌想要
soil bacteria looking to
对抗饥饿的蠕虫 就产生干扰无脊椎动物
deter hungry worms produce compounds that interfere with
神经冲动的化学物质
invertebrates’ nerve impulses.
其他生活在土壤中的细菌抵抗真菌的攻击
Other dirt-dwelling bacteria fend off fungi
它们大量产生一种化学物质 让真菌
by churning out a chemical that makes fungal
细胞出现破损漏洞 最终导致渗液死亡
cells leaky, causing an oozy death.
作为反击 有一群真菌释放出化学物质
In exchange, one group of fungi create a compound
破坏它们的细菌敌人的细胞壁
that breaks down the cell walls of a wide range of their bacterial nemeses.
人类已经增选出这些化学物质并为己所用
We humans have co-opted all of these compounds for our own use.
你可能吃过一种叫做盘尼西林的药
You ’ ve probably taken the medicine known
来治疗细菌感染
as penicillin to treat a bacterial infection,
如果你 或者可能是
and if you – or, more likely –
你的宠物 与寄生虫擦肩而过 你可能
your pet, has had a brush with parasitic worms, you may
会使用阿维菌素家族的药物
have used a drug from the avermectin family.
如果你得了严重的真菌感染
If you ’ ve gotten a serious fungal infection,
医生可能会用两性霉素来治疗
doctors probably treated you with amphotericin.
这些增选药物是一些
These co-opted drugs are some
市场上最好的抗病原体药物
of the best pathogen-fighting drugs on the market….which
按常理来说
stands to reason:
大自然本质上一直在进行药物研究和开发
nature is essentially doing drug research and development all the time.
而大自然的研究和开发仅仅是一系列
And while nature ’ s R & D is simply a series
不总是以成功告终的
of blind experiments that don ’ t always end
盲目实验
up successful, enough
数十亿年来 这些实验已经在整个地球上发生了很多次
of these experiments have happened all over the planet over billions
产生了一系列令人难以置信的有效武器
of years to result in an incredible rangeof effective weapons.
从自然中得到抗病原体药物才刚刚开始
And pathogen-fighting drugs derived from nature,are just the beginning.
我们已经发现了罂粟花和柳树中的止痛药
We ’ ve found painkillers in poppies and willow trees,
细菌中的湿疹治疗药物
an eczema treatment in bacteria, anti-cancer
太平洋紫杉中的抗癌药物
medicine in Pacific yews,
真菌中的降胆固醇药物麻黄属植物中的哮喘药
cholesterol drugs in fungi, asthma medication from the ephedra plant,
还有其他许许多多的药物
and many, many others.
另外
What ’ s more,
还有许多生物存在 我们甚至尚未辨认出
there are so many organisms out there that we haven ’ t even identified,
更别说用于制药了
much less put to pharmaceutical use.
一茶匙的土壤包含数以万计的物种
One teaspoon of soil can contain tens of thousands of species –
其中大部分物种是科学未知的
most of which are unknown to
每一个释放出几十种防御性化合物
science – each pumping out dozens of defensive compounds that might,
总有一天 会出现在
one day, end up in your
你的化学武器库
chemical arsenal.
这个视频由明尼苏达大学发起
This video was sponsored by the University
在明尼苏达大学 各种学术领域的学生 教师
of Minnesota, where students, faculty and
和职工
staff across all fields
正在努力解决社会面临的重大挑战
of study are working to solve the Grand Challenges facing society.
大学研究人员正在通过专门定制的解决方案促进人类健康
University researchers are advancing humanhealth through tailored solutions, which include
其中包括寻找治疗疾病的创新疗法
identifying innovative therapeutics to treatdiseases.
比如 明尼苏达大学药物设计中心的
For example, Professor Christine Salomon –
克里斯汀·所罗门教授
of the university ’ s Center for Drug Design
在洞穴和矿坑中进行研究
– searches in caves and mines
为了获取独特微生物 其防御性化学物质
for unique microbes whose defense chemicals we might be able to
我们可能在将来用于药物增选
co-opt for medications in the future. Thanks,
谢谢 明尼苏达大学!
University of Minnesota!

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视频概述

每个人生病了都会吃药,但是你知道药物从哪里来的吗?这个由明尼苏达大学发起的视频告诉你药物的来源,同时让你进一步了解大自然与人类生活的密切联系。快来一探究竟吧!

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0hLx_1Q15eY

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