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钻石来自哪里 – 译学馆
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钻石来自哪里

Where Do Diamonds Come From?

钻石闪亮 坚硬 是求婚的标志
Diamonds: they’re shiny, tough, and an icon of marriage proposals.
从化学角度来看 钻石是一堆碳原子紧密结合成的四面体结构晶体
On a chemical level, a diamond is just a bunch of carbon atoms bonded together in tetrahedrons.
正是这种晶体结构使钻石成为最坚硬的天然矿物
This crystal structure is why diamond is the hardest natural mineral, and beats most
并且其硬度大于大多数人造矿物
man-made ones too!
所以我们知道钻石是很特别的 但是它们首先是在哪儿出现的呢?
So, we know that diamonds are special, but where do they come from in the first place?
钻石形成的条件极为特殊 所以人们可能在行星撞击的地方
Diamonds are formed in really extreme conditions, which is why you might find them at the sites
甚至是太空中的陨星中发现它们
of asteroid impacts, and even on meteorites in space.
但大多数天然钻石 不是在数十亿年前 就是在数百万年
But we think most natural diamonds were made millions, if not billions of years ago, in
在地壳深处的熔岩中形成的
the splooshy molten rock deep within the Earth.
在距离地表160多千米深处 高温高压
Over 160 kilometers beneath the Earth’s surface, the intense heat and pressure forced
使碳原子们形成为四面体结构 再进一步形成钻石
carbon atoms into that tetrahedral structure to form diamonds.
然后地底火山岩喷发以大约40千米每小时的速度
Then, deep volcanic eruptions blasted them up to the surface, at around 40 kilometers
把钻石带到地表
per hour.
如果钻石上升速度比上述速度慢得多的话 逐渐减小的压力
If the diamonds came up much slower than that, the gradually-decreasing pressure would let
会将碳原子转化为其他稳定的形式 如石墨
the carbon atoms shift back into other stable forms like graphite.
在地表 岩浆迅速冷却并形成名为金伯利岩的火成岩
At the surface, everything cooled really quickly to make these igneous rock formations called
钻石就藏匿其中
kimberlites, with diamonds hiding inside.
然后 人们挖掘出这些矿石
And, eventually, we humans came along to mine them.
现在我们知道了钻石是由碳原子经历高温高压后形成的
So we know that diamonds are made of squished and superheated carbon atoms, but we’re
但我们并不确定这些碳原子从何而来
not exactly sure where that carbon came from.
地质学家们主要有两大猜想
Geologists have two main guesses:
一是 地幔深处有某些从未面世的
For one, there could be some kind of carbon-containing sediment deep within the Earth’s mantle,
含碳沉积物
that never saw the light of day.
二是这些碳来源于地壳俯冲板块中的有机物
Or maybe the carbon in diamonds came from organic stuff in subducting tectonic plates,
像洋底中的某些东西 但不是煤
like stuff on the ocean floors, but not coal.
那句话“所有钻石是煤在压力下形成的”多半是无稽之谈
That whole “all diamonds are just coal under pressure” thing is mostly just … wrong.
煤是一种有机碳 但煤大多由古代的植物
See, coal is a form of organic carbon, but it was made mostly out of ancient plants,
在更接近地表的沉积岩层中形成的
in layers of sedimentary rock closer to the Earth’s surface.
所以煤的形成大大高于以及晚于多数钻石的形成
So it formed way later and way higher up than we think most diamonds did.
目前科学家可以在实验室内用一种叫化学气相沉积的方法
These days, scientists can also make synthetic diamonds in a lab with a process called chemical
合成人造钻石
vapor deposition.
首先一颗微小的天然钻石作为基底
Basically, they start with a tiny seed of natural diamond to provide a “pattern.”
然后他们通过高温高压使
Then, they use high pressure and temperature tools to turn carbon atoms, usually from a
来源于含碳气体中的碳原子在基底上沉积为钻石
carbon-containing gas, into layers of diamond.
这种人造钻石通常很完美 不像天然钻石那样有瑕疵
These lab-made diamonds are generally flawless, unlike many natural ones.
另外 人造钻石更便宜 与开采天然钻石相比
Plus, they can be cheaper to buy, and have less of an environmental impact than mining
对环境影响更小
natural diamonds.
所以无论是来自地壳深处还是实验室的钻石
So whether a diamond came from deep within the Earth or a materials science lab, it’s
都是一样的矿物质 只是经历有所不同而已
still the same mineral, just with a different story.
感谢那些提问的人 尤其感谢那些在Patreon上
Thanks for asking, and thanks especially to all of our patrons on Patreon who keep these
给予答案的赞助者
answers coming.
如果有任何的疑问 或想提前得到一些视频
If you’d like to submit questions to be answered, or get some videos a few days early,
可以去patreon.com/scishow上留言
go to patreon.com/scishow.
别忘了去youtube.com/scishow
And don’t forget to go to youtube.com/scishow
订阅我们哦
and subscribe!

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本视频主要是介绍钻石的产生以及和煤的区分,涨知识咯!

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YR66iTeV_Mw

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