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月球是从哪里来的? – 译学馆
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月球是从哪里来的?

Where Did the Moon Come From?

月球是哪儿来的?我们似乎都知道答案 对吧?
Where’d the Moon come from? It seems like the kind of thing we’d know, right? Considering
我们把宇宙飞船送到太阳系边缘 在银河系中间找到宇宙黑洞
we’ve sent spacecraft to the edge of the Solar System and found black holes in the
我们知道这些是为了了解宇宙中的天体
middle of galaxies, we should know all there is to know about the rock in the sky.
如果你在刚过去的几十年里去了学校,你可能会了解大约45亿年前
If you went to school in the last few decades, you probably learned that around 4.5 billion
一个跟火星一样大小的物体与地球相碰撞了,而这个宏大的碰撞强制性的让这两个物体的一部分
years ago, a Mars-sized object collided with Earth, and this epic collision ejected parts
进入了太空也就是在那这些部分被月球所融合了。 那个火星大小的原始星体
of both objects into space where they coalesced into the Moon. That Mars-sized protoplanet
甚至有名字,Theia,而且有很多支持这个假说的证据。
even has a name, Theia, and there’s a lot of evidence to support this hypothesis. But
但这个理论也有点问题 事实上 月球起源的故事
the theory is not without its problems. It turns out that the origin story of our Moon
要比你想象的糟糕
is murkier than you might expect.
关于Theia撞击情况的理论在20世纪70年代首次被提出来,就是在
The Theia impact scenario theory first gained traction in the 1970s soon after humanity
人类第一次近距离观看月球并且第一次有能力去研究月球后的不久。
got its first good up close look at the Moon and was able to study it for the first time.
我们学到的最显著的一件事是地球有一个月球没有的实心的坚固的内核。
One of the striking things we learned was that while the Earth has a solid iron core,
碰撞理论证明那一次撞击在地球历史的前边部分
the Moon doesn’t. The impact theory suggests that a collision occurred early in Earth’s
但是却是在它的大部分铁资源都沉入地球中心之后。 如果是那样的话,那么
history but after most of its iron had sunk to the centre. In that case, the debris ejected
那次撞击喷出的残核可能大部分都来自地球的岩石圈。覆盖层铁的缺乏
from the impact would have come mostly from Earth’s rocky, iron deficient mantle creating
造成了月球基本上是由较轻的元素所组成的,而且根据情况看起来也确实是这样。
a moon composed of mostly lighter elements, and that’s exactly what appears to have
地球的密度是平均5.5克每立方厘米,然而,月球的密度是
happened. Earth has a mean density of 5.5 grams per cubic centimeter, the Moon, however,
3.3克美立方厘米。而这些差异就在于铁。思考一下早期的太阳系
is 3.3 grams. This difference is the iron. Considering that the early Solar System was
可能是和那些劣态的原始星体一起存活,有很大可能性是它们其中的一个从地球的
probably populated with rogue protoplanets, the possibility that one of them would cross
运行轨迹上经过
paths with Earth seems likely enough.
但是这有一个问题。如果Theia 星体与地球相撞,那么月球
But here’s a wrinkle. If Theia collided with Earth, you’d expect that the Moon would
还有Theia的一些小片的化学组成成份应该
also include bits of Theia with different chemical compositions than what’s found
和在地球上找到的化学成分不同才对,然而事实并不是这样。宇航员Apollo收集的关于月球岩石的分析
on Earth, and that’s not the case. Analysis of Moon rocks collected by Apollo astronauts
显示,地球化学说,月球和地球的覆盖层几乎是相同的。
shows that, geochemically speaking, the mantles of the Moon and the Earth are nearly identical.
这让碰撞理论有些难以理解。但是它仍然是
This makes the collision theory a little harder to understand. But it’s still the leader
俱乐部的领导,因为,同时还有一些其它的假设,
of the clubhouse because, while there’s a lot of other hypotheses, they’re full
它们也是满是漏洞。
of holes as well.
有一个引人注意的理论说月球是被地球的引力所捆住了,
There’s the capture theory in which the Moon was roped in by Earth’s gravitational
就像火星捕获它的两颗卫星Phobos和Deimos一样。但是这些卫星
pull, similar to how Mars captured its two moons Phobos and Deimos. But these moons were
更有可能是落入火星轨道的稍大一些的行星。看起来我们的月球并不符合这种情况
probably just large asteroids that fell into Mars’ orbit. This seems like an unlikely
因为月球是一个大体积的球体。这也同样不能解释
scenario for our moon which is huge and spherical. It also doesn’t account for the similarities
化学元素上的相似性。然后有一个CO的组成理论启示说月球和地球的
in chemistry. Then there’s the co-formation theory which suggests that the Moon formed
组成是串联在一起的,也就是说这两个变体都是来自于同种的基本材料。但是这
in tandem with the Earth, each morphing out of the same basic materials. But this doesn’t
并不能解释为什么月球缺铁而且月球的密度也比地球小。原子的分裂原理做假设说
explain why the Moon lacks iron and is less dense than Earth. The fission theory posits
地球在它的初期转的太快了以致于它可以向太空中喷出足够的
that Earth was spinning so fast in its infancy that our planet could have ejected enough
它自己的覆盖物从而形成了一个月球。最后,另一个典型的理论是 一个
of its own mantle into space to form the Moon. Finally, another model theorizes that a nearly
几乎和我们的地球一样的星体和我们不成熟的地球相撞了。当它们撞击到一块时,
identical object to Earth collided with our young planet. And when they smashed together,
它们的化学组成混合到了某一种程度 此时它们互相已经不能区别开来了。
their chemical compositions mixed to a point where they became indistinguishable from each
我们只是去显示 太空的巨大秘密离我们一点也不远。
other. Just goes to show that some of space’s greatest mysteries are not far away at all.
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