ADM-201 dump PMP dumps pdf SSCP exam materials CBAP exam sample questions

月亮来自哪里?一个新的学说 – 译学馆
未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

月亮来自哪里?一个新的学说

Where did the Moon come from? A new theory | Sarah T. Stewart

没人喜欢犯错
Nobody likes to make a mistake.
但我却犯下大错
And I made a whopping one.
而弄清楚所犯错误的过程却导致了一个发现
And figuring out what I did wrongled to a discovery
这个发现完全改变了我们对地球和月亮的认知
that completely changes the way we think about the Earth and Moon.
我是个行星科学家
I’m a planetary scientist,
我最爱做的事就是把“行星”一起打碎
and my favorite thing to do is smash planets together.
在我的实验室 我可以用这样的大炮射击岩石
In my lab, I can shoot at rocks using cannons like this one.
[大炮射击声]
(Cannon shot)
在我的实验中 我能产生行星形成期的极端条件
In my experiment, I can generate the extreme conditions during planet formation.
通过电脑模型 我能让全部行星碰撞在一起
And with computer models,I can collide whole planets together
让它们变大 或者毁掉它们
to make them grow, or I can destroy them.
我想知道地球和月亮是如何形成的
I want to understand how to make the Earth and the Moon
以及地球与其他行星差异明显的原因
and why the Earth is so differentfrom other planets.
关于地球和月亮起源的主要观点
The leading idea for the originof the Earth and Moon
被称作“大碰撞假说”
is called the”giant impact theory.”
这个理论认为 一个火星大小的物体撞击了年轻的地球
The theory states that a Mars-sized body struck the young Earth,
而月球是由环绕地球的碎片圆盘形成
and the Moon formed from the debris disc around the planet.
这个理论可以解释很多关于月球的事情
The theory can explain so many things about the Moon,
但它有一个巨大的漏洞:
but it has a huge flaw:
它预测月球主要由火星大小的行星构成
it predicts that the Moon is mostly made from the Mars-sized planet,
这样的话 地球和月球就由不同的材料构成
that the Earth and the Moonare made from different materials.
但我们见到的并非如此
But that’s not what we see.
地球和月球实际上就像一对双胞胎
The Earth and the Moon are actually like identical twins.
两个行星的基因密码就是元素的同位素
The genetic code of planets is written in the isotopes of the elements.
地球和月球有相同的同位素
The Earth and Moon have identical isotopes.
这意味着地球和月球是由相同的物质组成的
That means that the Earth and Moon are made from the same materials.
地球和月亮是双胞胎真的让人惊奇
It’s really strange that the Earthand the Moon are twins.
所有的行星都是由不同的物质组成的
All of the planets are madefrom different materials,
所以它们都有不同的同位素
so they all have different isotopes,
它们都有自己的遗传密码
they all have their own genetic code.
没有任何其他的行星有相同遗传关系
No other planetary bodieshave the same genetic relationship.
除了地球和月亮
Only the Earth and Moon are twins.
当我开始研究月球的起源时
When I started workingon the origin of the Moon,
有科学家想否认关于“大碰撞假说”的整个想法
there were scientists that wanted to reject the whole idea of the giant impact.
他们不认可这个理论
They didn’t see any way for this theory
对于地球和月亮特殊关系的解释
to explain the special relationship between the Earth and the Moon.
我们都在试图提出新的理论
We were all trying to think of new ideas.
而问题是 并没有更好的理论
The problem was,there weren’t any better ideas.
其它的理论甚至有更大的漏洞
All of the other ideashad even bigger flaws.
于是我们就试图完善“大碰撞假说”
So we were trying to rescuethe giant impact theory.
我小组中一位年轻科学家建议
A young scientist in my group suggested
如果我们试着改变“大撞击”的旋转角度
that we try changing the spin of the giant impact.
也许让地球旋转得更快 可以混合更多的物质
Maybe making the Earth spin fastercould mix more material
并解释月球的产生
and explain the Moon.
我们选择火星大小的撞击物
The Mars-sized impactor had been chosen
因为它可以形成月亮
because it could make the Moon
并形成地球上一天的时长
and make the length of Earth’s day.
大家真的很喜欢这部分的模型
People really likedthat part of the model.
但如果是其它的东西决定了地球一天的时长呢?
But what if something else determinedthe length of Earth’s day?
那会有更多可能的撞击形成月球
Then there would be many more possible giant impacts that could make the Moon.
我很好奇会发生什么
I was curious about what could happen,
所以我试着模拟快速旋转的巨大撞击
so I tried simulatingfaster-spinning giant impacts,
我发现 用与行星相同的混合物质
and I found that it is possible
制作一个圆盘 是有可能的
to make a disc out of the same mixture of materials as the planet.
我们非常兴奋
We were pretty excited.
也许这就是解释月球形成的方式
Maybe this was the wayto explain the Moon.
问题是 我们发现这个可能性并不大
The problem is, we also found that that’s just not very likely.
大多数时候 这个圆盘和行星不一样
Most of the time, the discis different from the planet,
而月球这样的形成方式 看起来就像
and it looked likemaking our Moon this way
完全偶然的太空事件
would be an astronomical coincidence,
只是每个人都很难接受
and it was just hardfor everyone to accept the idea
月球和地球的这种特殊关系 完全是意外
that the Moon’s special connectionto Earth was an accident.
“大碰撞假说”还是有问题
The giant impact theorywas still in trouble,
于是我们继续努力弄清楚月球是如何形成的
and we were still trying to figure out how to make the Moon.
然后有一天 我意识到了自己的错误
Then came the daywhen I realized my mistake.
我和我的学生正在研究这些快速旋转的巨大撞击的数据
My student and I were looking at the data from these fast-spinning giant impacts.
那天我们并没有真的在思考月球
On that day, we weren’t actuallythinking about the Moon,
我们在观察这个“行星”
we were looking at the planet.
“行星”已经非常热了
The planet gets super-hot
并且由于撞击的影响 已经部分蒸发了
and partially vaporized from the energy of the impact.
但数据显示其看起来不像是行星
But the data didn’t look like a planet.
它看起来非常奇怪
It looked really strange.
这颗“行星”与圆盘奇怪地相连
The planet was weirdlyconnected to the disc.
我有种超兴奋的感觉
I got that super-excited feeling
某些非常错误的事情也许最后会变得很有趣
when something really wrongmight be something really interesting.
在我所有的计算当中
In all of my calculations,
我原来假设有一个被独立的圆盘围绕的“行星”
I had assumed there was a planet with a separate disc around it.
我们测验撞击是否产生月球的方法
Calculating what was in the discwas how we tested
就是计算圆盘中存在什么物质
whether an impact could make the Moon.
不过这个看起来不再那么简单了
But it didn’t look that simple anymore.
我们犯了一个错误
We were making the mistake
认为行星总是保持着行星的样子
of thinking that a planet was always going to look like a planet.
在那一天
On that day,
我知道一次巨大的撞击正在创造一个全新的东西
I knew that a giant impact was making something completely new.
我曾经有过“我知道了!”的时刻
I’ve had eureka moments.
这次不算
This was not one of them.
[笑声]
(Laughter)
我当时真的不知道怎么回事
I really didn’t know what was going on.
在我面前有个奇怪的新东西
I had this strange, new objectin front of me
一项挑战 要尝试并弄清楚它
and the challengeto try and figure it out.
当你面对未知事物的时候会怎么做?
What do you do when facedwith the unknown?
甚至该如何下手呢?
How do you even start?
我们质疑所有的东西:到底什么是行星?
We questioned everything: What is a planet?
什么时候一颗行星不再是行星?
When is a planet no longera planet anymore?
我们试验了新的想法
We played with new ideas.
我们必须摆脱自己的旧思维
We had to get ridof our old way of thinking,
通过演示 我把所有的数据
and by playing, I couldthrow away all of the data,
和真实世界的规则都抛开
all of the rules of the real world,
让我的头脑放飞探索
and free my mind to explore.
通过建立一个自我的思维空间
And by making a mental space
我可以在里面进行各种匪夷所思的设想
where I could try out outrageous ideas
然后把它们带进现实世界进行测试
and then bring them back into the real world to test them,
我可以不断学习
I could learn.
而通过演示 我们收获更多
And by playing, we learned so much.
我把我的实验与电脑模型结合起来
I combined my lab experimentswith computer models
然后发现 在多数大撞击后
and discovered thatafter most giant impacts,
“地球”非常热 以至表面都融化了
the Earth is so hot, there’s no surface.
只有一个深层气体 随厚度的增加 密度越来越大
There’s just a deep layer of gas that gets denser and denser with depth.
地球会像木星一样
The Earth would have been like Jupiter.
寸草不生
There’s nothing to stand on.
而这仅仅是部分的问题所在
And that was just part of the problem.
我想了解整个的问题出在哪
I wanted to understand the whole problem.
我对这个挑战更加执着
I couldn’t let go of the challenge
在大撞击的过程中到底发生了什么?
to figure out what was really going on in giant impacts.
我们几乎用了两年的时间来排除旧的想法
It took almost two years of throwing away old ideas
并建立新的理论来理解我们的数据
and building new ones that we understood the data and
并弄明白了这对月球的意义
knew what it meant for the Moon.
我发现了一种新的天体
I discovered a new typeof astronomical object.
不是行星
It’s not a planet.
但是由行星形成的
It’s made from planets.
行星就是由于自身的重力
A planet is a body whose self-gravity
使外形变成球体的天体
is strong enough to give itits rounded shape.
它不停地进行旋转
It spins around all together.
越来越热 并越转越快
Make it hotter and spin it faster,
赤道越来越大 直至到达一个临界点
the equator gets bigger and bigger until it reaches a tipping point.
过了这个临界点
Push past the tipping point,
赤道上的物质就扩散成圆盘
and the material at the equator spreads into a disc.
这打破了行星的所有规则
It’s now broken all the rulesof being a planet.
它不能再进行旋转了
It can’t spin around together anymore,
随着体积越来越大 它的形状也不停变化
its shape keeps changingas it gets bigger and bigger;
这颗行星变成了一个新的东西
the planet has become something new.
我们给这个发现命名为: Synestia
We gave our discovery its name: Synestia.
我们以赫斯提亚女神来称它
We named it after the goddess Hestia,
这是希腊神话掌管家庭和壁炉的女神
the Greek goddess of the hearth and home,
因为我们认为地球就是一个温暖的家
because we think the Earth became one.
前缀意思是“一起”
The prefix means”all together,”
强调所有物质之前的联系
to emphasize the connectionbetween all of the material.
Synestia就是一个
A synestia is what a planet becomes
当热量和自旋把它推到球状的极限时 产生的行星
when heat and spin push it over the limit of a spheroidal shape.
你们想看看Synestia吗?
Would you like to see a synestia?
[欢呼声]
(Cheers)
在我的其中一个模型的可视图形中
In this visualization of one of my simulations,
因先前的巨大撞击 年轻的地球已经在快速旋转
the young Earth is already spinning quickly from a previous giant impact.
它已经变形了 但我们地球还是可以通过其表面的水
Its shape is deformed, but our planet would be recognizable
来进行辨认
by the water on its surface.
撞击产生的能量使得地表
The energy from the impactvaporizes the surface,
水和大气都蒸发了
the water, the atmosphere,
在短短几个小时内所有的气体都混在一起
and mixes all of the gases together in just a few hours.
我们发现很多剧烈的撞击 会产生Synestias
We discovered that manygiant impacts make synestias,
但这些燃烧着的明亮的物质 不会持续很长
but these burning, bright objectsdon’t live very long.
它们冷却 收缩 然后变回行星
They cool down, shrinkand turn back into planets.
像地球这样的岩石行星在形成时
While rocky planetslike Earth were growing,
它们也许不止一次地变成Synestia
they probably turned into synestiasone or more times.
Synestia假说给我们提供了一种
A synestia gives us a new way to solve the problem
全新的理解月球起源的方式
of the origin of the Moon.
我们假设月亮形成于一个巨大的 蒸发的Synestia内部
We propose that the Moon formedinside a huge, vaporous synestia.
月球由岩石蒸汽凝结而成的岩浆雨形成
The Moon grew from magma rain that condensed out of the rock vapor.
月亮与地球的特殊关系
The Moon’s special connection to Earth
正是因为地球是Synestia时 月球形成于其内部
is because the Moon formedinside the Earth when Earth was a synestia.
月亮在Synestia内部已经运转很多年了
The Moon could have orbitedinside the synestia for years,
但是我们看不到
hidden from view.
Synestia开始冷却并收缩时 月亮才在内部轨道中显现出来
The Moon is revealed by the synestia cooling and shrinking inside of its orbit.
Synestia经过数百年的冷却
The synestia turns into planet Earth
变成了地球
only after coolingfor hundreds of years longer.
在我们的新理论中 大撞击产生了Synestia
In our new theory, the giant impact makes a synestia,
而Synestia分成了两个新的部分
and the synestia dividesinto two new bodies,
创造出了同位素相同的地球和月球
creating our isotopicallyidentical Earth and Moon.
Synestia在整个宇宙中不断产生
Synestias have been createdthroughout the universe.
而我们只有通过自己的想象
And we only just realized that
才能意识到它们的存在
by finding them in our imagination:
我还忽视了周围世界的什么东西?
What else am I missingin the world around me?
我自己的假说中还存在什么没想到的东西?
What is hidden from my viewby my own assumptions?
下一次你看着月亮时 记住:
The next time you look at the Moon, remember:
你认为自己所了解的东西
the things you think you know
也许里面有一些惊人的真相 等着你去发现
may be the opportunity to discover something truly amazing.
[掌声]
(Applause)

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

月球和地球的物质组成是一样的,这是为什么?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

果子

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7uRPPaYuu44

相关推荐