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俄罗斯从哪里来

Where did Russia come from? - Alex Gendler

俄罗斯起源于哪里
Where did Russia come from,
为何幅员如此辽阔
why is it so big,
它和其邻国有什么不同呢?
and what are the differences between it and its neighbors?
答案就在航海战士
The answers lie in an epic storyof seafaring warriors,
游牧入侵者
nomadic invaders,
以及被称为“基辅罗斯”的中世纪国家兴衰的史诗故事中
and the rise and fall of a medieval state known as Kievan Rus.
公元后的第一个千年
In the first millennium,
一个庞大的游牧民族开始向东欧繁茂的森林扩张
a large group of tribes spread through the dense woodlands of Eastern Europe.
由于他们没有文字记载这段历史
Because they had no writing system,
我们一般通过
much of what we know about them comes
三种主要途径了解它:
from three main sources:
考古学的佐证
archaeological evidence,
当时罗马帝国和
accounts from literate scholars
中东地区文学家的记述以及《往年纪事》(Primary Chronicle)
of the Roman Empire and the Middle East, and,
一部由名叫涅斯托尔的游僧
lastly, an epic history calledthe Primary Chronicle
编篡的 有时代意义的历史著作
compiled in the 12th centuryby a monk named Nestor.
书中记述
What they tell us is
这些部落共用一套语言系统——斯拉夫语
that these tribes who shared a common Slavic language
共同信仰多神教
and polytheistic religion
在公元七世纪 他们分裂成西部
had by the 7th century split into western,
南部和东部三个分支
southern and eastern branches,
东部分支从德涅斯特河
the latter stretching fromthe Dniester River
延伸到伏尔加河 波罗的海等地
to the Volga and the Baltic Sea.
在涅斯托尔记载的故事中
As Nestor’s story goes,
在遭受了北边维京人的多年侵扰后
after years of subjugation by Vikings from the north, who,
这里说的并不是带着牛角帽子的维京人
by the way, did not wearhorned helmets in battle,
当地人奋起反抗并把他们驱赶了出去
the region’s tribes revoltedand drove back the Northmen,
但只剩自己时 他们又会相互攻讦
but left to their own devices,they turned on each other.
讽刺的是 这样的混乱促使他们
Such chaos ensued that, ironically,
寻求之前的敌人——维京人的帮助
the tribes reached out to the foreignersthey had just expelled,
邀请他们回来帮助建立秩序
inviting them to returnand establish order.
维京人欣然同意了
The Vikings accepted,
派遣他们的王子留里克和他的两个兄弟回来统治
sending a prince named Rurik and his two brothers to rule.
同时 留里克的儿子奥列格开始向南部扩张
With Rurik’s son, Oleg,expanding his realm into the south,
他们的帝国不久后迁都到基辅
and moving the capitol to Kiev,
那是哈扎尔帝国从前的前哨
a former outpost of the Khazar Empire,
这意味着基辅罗斯帝国的诞生
the Kievan Rus was born,
“罗斯”来自一个古老的挪威语 意思是 “划桨人”
“Rus” most likely deriving froman old Norse word for”the men who row.”
这个新成立的国家和邻国有着十分复杂的关系
The new princedom had complex relationswith its neighbors,
它改变了哈扎尔和拜占庭帝国之间的利害关系
alternating between alliance and warfarewith the Khazar and Byzantine Empires,
对其他的邻近部落也同样有些影响
as well as neighboring tribes.
宗教在当时的政治系统中有着重要的影响
Religion played an importantrole in politics,
随着故事的发展 在公元987年
and as the legend goes, in 987,
罗斯的王子——弗拉基米尔一世决定
the Rus prince Vladamir I decided
是时候放弃斯拉夫的异教信仰了
it was time to abandon Slavic paganism,
他向邻国派去使者 让他们去研究当地的宗教
and sent emissariesto explore neighboring faiths.
他无法忍受伊斯兰不喝酒的传统
Put off by Islam’s prohibition on alcohol
以及犹太人被驱逐出圣地的凄惨
and Judaism’s expulsionfrom its holy land,
在听说基督教的各式庆典后
the ruler settled on Orthodox Christianity
他接受了正统基督教(东正教)
after hearing odd accountsof its ceremonies.
通过弗拉米尔的转变 还有他和拜占庭皇妹的联姻
With Vladimir’s conversion and marriageto the Byzantine emperor’s sister,
以及伏尔加河上蓬勃发展的贸易
as well as continued tradealong the Volga route,
两大文明的关系更加紧密了
the relationship betweenthe two civilizations deepened.
罗斯帝国的维京战士在拜占庭帝国做一流守卫时
Byzantine missionaries created an alphabetfor Slavic languages
拜占庭的传教士根据
based on a modified Greek script
改良版的希腊字母为斯拉夫语创造了一套新的字母表
while Rus Viking warriors served as theByzantine Emperor’s elite guard.
在很长一段时间后 基辅罗斯由于自身丰富的资源和蓬勃发展的贸易变得十分强大
For several generations, the Kievan Rus flourished from its rich resources and trade.
他们的贵族在与欧洲其他统治者联姻的同时
Its noblemen and noblewomen marriedprominent European rulers,
当地居民还享受着他们伟大的文化 文学
while residents of some citiesenjoyed great culture, literacy,
甚至当时罕有的民主自由
and even democratic freedomsuncommon for the time.
但是好景不长
But nothing lasts forever.
兄弟间争夺继承权的斗争使中央集权逐渐瓦解
Fratricidal disputes over successionbegan to erode central power
王子争夺着不同城市的统治权
as increasingly independent citiesruled by rival princes vied for control.
当日耳曼的十字军逐渐抵达北部时
The Fourth Crusadeand decline of Constantinople
随着第四次十字军战争和君士坦丁堡的沦陷
devastated the trade integralto Rus wealth and power,
基辅罗斯因贸易而积攒的财富和权力慢慢沦陷
while Teutonic crusadersthreatened northern territories.
然而 压死骆驼的最后一根稻草来自东部
The final blow, however, wouldcome from the east.
王子们执着于眼前的争吵
Consumed by their squabbles,
忽视了当地对一个
Rus princes paid little attentionto the rumors
神秘快速发展的组织的流言
of a mysterious unstoppable hoard
直到公元1237年 成吉思汗率领着3万5千名骑兵
until 1237, when 35,000 mountedarchers led by Batu Khan
横扫了基辅罗斯的所有城市
swept through the Rus cities,
洗劫了首都基辅后又前往匈牙利以及波兰
sacking Kiev before continuingon to Hungary and Poland.
基辅罗斯的时代告一段落
The age of Kievan Rus had come to an end,
原基辅罗斯的居民如今也散布在世界各地
its people now divided.
在仍被蒙古人统治着的东方
In the east, which remainedunder Mongol rule,
有一个叫做莫斯科的贸易点壮大起来
a remote trading post, known as Moscow,
他们能挑战可汗的权力
would grow to challengethe power of the Khans,
夺回了破碎帝国的部分领土
conquering partsof their fragmenting empire, and,
并用各种方法 延续下去
in many ways, succeeding it.
他们逐渐吸收了原属基辅罗斯的东部领土
As it absorbed othereastern Rus territories,
改变了原来的名字 用了希腊发音 叫Ruscia 与此同时
it reclaimed the old namein its Greek form, Ruscia. Meanwhile,
西部地区的统治者们一直通过某些政治手段
the western regionswhose leaders had avoided destruction
规避风险 直到蒙古骑兵撤退
through political maneuveringuntil the hoard withdrew
但他们仍然遭受着波兰和立陶宛的影响
came under the influence of Polandand Lithuania.
在接下来的几个世纪 基辅罗斯的这片领土上
For the next few centuries, the former lands of
曾填满了斯拉夫人 为维京人所统治
Kievan Rus populated by Slavs, ruled by Vikings,
被希腊人教导 被蒙古人瓜分
taught by Greeks, and split by Mongols would develop
最终形成了社会 语言 文化的多元
differences in society, culture and language
一直延续到今天
that remain to the present day.

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翻译译者

甪里

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审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lfe1wEQzSzM

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