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人类从哪里来?

Where Did Humans Come From?

Picture human ancestry like a single chain of species: primitive to perfect,
我们常把人类祖先想象成单一的物种链:从原始到完美
with a progression of all the apey-human things in between.
两者之间是所有猿人的进化过程
Now take that picture, crumple it up and light it on fire.
但事实并非如此
That’s not how it happened.
单一进化链的想法应当付之一炬
Now we know we’re just one of more than two dozen human species
现在我们知道 我们只是二十多个
that’ve walked the Earth…
用双足丈量过土地的人类物种之一
well, probably walked.
唔 应该有一部分能双足行走吧
Some even lived alongside us.
有些古人类甚至曾与我们的祖先毗邻而居
So where do all those other twigs fit on our tree?
这些古人类应该放在进化史上的什么位置呢
And what makes us… us?
是什么让我们的祖先脱颖而出 成为如今的我们?
This is us.
这是人类
And this is our closest living relative.
这是现存与我们亲缘关系最近的生物
Chimps aren’t our ancestors.
黑猩猩不是我们的祖先
We share a common ancestor,
我们有一个共同的祖先
and genetic studies say chimp and human histories
但基因研究表明黑猩猩和人类的进化史
split around 7 million years ago.
在大约700万年前就分道扬镳了
When I say “human” (with a lower case h) or hominin,
当我说“人类”(小写h)或古人类时
I’m talking about all the species in here.
我是泛指这里所有的物种
That’s where all the interesting things happened
这才是所有有趣的事情发生的地方
that made us what we are today.
正是这些事造就了今天的我们
We’ve unearthed thousands of ancient remains,
我们已经出土了数千具上古遗骸
and not all belong to our ancestors.
它们并不是全都属于我们的祖先
The challenge is sorting which of them
我们面临的挑战是
lie on other branches–dead ends–on the evolutionary tree,
如何区分其中哪些处于其它进化分支
and which are part of our story.
又是哪些见证了现代人类的进化史
That story can be hard to follow,
这个故事可能信息量很大
and it has a lot of characters…
而且有很多人物……
and they all end up dead.
他们最终都死了
And in the Game of Bones, you win when you die, and turn to stones
在遗骸游戏中 当你死后变成化石时你就赢了
So what’s the oldest species in our family album?
那么我们族谱中最古老的物种是什么呢
It’s hard to tell for sure.
很难确定
As we look back in the fossil record,
当我们回顾化石记录时
the distinctive features that make us human become less distinctive.
那些让我们人类与众不同的特征变得不那么独特了
This one lived around the time chimps split off.
乍得沙赫人生活在人类与黑猩猩分化的时代
It’s almost entirely ape-like,
它几乎完全像类人猿
but with smaller canine teeth than chimps today,
但犬牙比现在的黑猩猩要小
and a skull carried upright instead of at an angle,
而且它的颈椎是直立而非前倾的
the way knuckle-walkers carry theirs.
有点原始人的味道了
But our *ancestor*?
但是我们的祖先呢
Can’t be sure.
不能肯定
Jump ahead and we meet Ardi.
往前看 我们遇到了地猿始祖种
Small ape brain, an upper body adapted to the trees,
它的大脑很小 有着适应树栖生活的上半身
and a big toe that’s more like a thumb,
还有一个更像拇指的大脚趾
but a pelvis shape that could have handled some bipedal movement–
但是骨盆形状或许允许其进行一些双足运动
walking on two legs, some of the time.
比如偶尔用两条腿走路
This makes sense when you think about it.
仔细想想 这有道理
The first apes to hit the ground
第一批走向大地的猿类
couldn’t learn everything when they got there.
不可能直到下地才一下子学会所有东西
They’d get eaten.
他们会被捕食的
They must’ve already been comfortable up on two legs,
他们肯定已经习惯了双足站立
the way orangutans are.
就像红猩猩一样
4.1 million years ago, we find strong knees that can hold weight.
我们发现410万年前人类祖先就有能负重的强壮的膝盖
And by 3.7 million years ago, ancient humans on two legs, full time.
到了370万年前 人类祖先已经完全依靠双腿行走了
We know this because they left actual footprints.
从他们留下的真实的脚印中可以得证
The likely owner of those feet was this, Australopithecus afarensis.
那些足迹可能是非洲南方古猿留下的
The most famous member of this species, Lucy,
其中最广为人知的成员是露西
shows a ton of two-legged adaptations:
她有很多适应双足行走的身体结构:
a human-like foot,a short pelvis,
一个类似人类的脚 一个短的骨盆
and a femur that angles inward for a smoother stride
还有一个能使步幅更平稳的向内倾斜的股骨
There’s a good chance Ardi and Lucy aren’t our ancestors,
地猿始祖种和非洲南方古猿很可能不是我们的祖先
but they show us that 3…4 million years ago,
但他们表明 三四百万年前
evolution was already doing experiments on two legs.
这两种猿类的双腿已经在进化了
At this point you might be wondering: Why walk?
此时你可能会想:为什么要走路呢
Swinging from trees is fun!
在树上摇荡多有趣!
We know the earliest apes on our branch lived in forest areas,
我们知道进化史上最早的类人猿生活在森林地区
where food is usually easy to find,
在那里他们通常很容易找到食物
so tree-swinging and knuckle-walking are fine ways to get around.
所以在树上摇荡和拳步行走是很好的行走方式
But a few million years ago,
但是几百万年前
a changing climate turned African forests into grasslands
气候的变化使非洲的森林变成了草原
where food was harder to find
类人猿很难在这找到食物
so apes had to travel and innovate.
所以他们必须迁徙和进化
Between 2 and 3 MYA, we hit a big gap in our family tree,
两百万到三百万年前 我们的家谱出现了巨大的空白
but it’s at a key point on the path to becoming us.
但这个空白正处于形成人类的关键时刻
In 2015, a new species was found, that might fit here,
2015年 我们发现了一个可能适合这个时期的新物种
that might be a link between apes like Lucy and apes like us.
它可能把像Lucy这样的类人猿和我们人类联系起来了
But we still don’t know exactly when it lived, so… yeah.
但是我们仍不知道它确切的生存时间 所以……
Another question.
另一个问题
It’s kind of a theme in paleoanthropology,
这是古人类学的一个主题
every bone you find seems to make the story less simple.
你发现的每根骨头 似乎都让故事变得不那么简单
So why all the gaps?
那么 这些空白从何而来呢?
If you’re an ancient ape who wants to be famous a few million years in the future,
如果你是一个想在几百万年后出名的远古猿类
here’s some advice:
这儿有些建议:
Make sure you drop dead in soft sediment,
确保你自己死在柔软的沉积物中
or maybe somewhere like a bog.
或者死在像沼泽一样的地方
Try to get buried quickly, away from oxygen.
尽量赶紧下葬 远离氧气
Then hope a river, glacier, or moving continent doesn’t sweep you away,
然后祈祷河流 冰川或移动的大陆不会把你带走
and stay clear of wind and rain ‘til your skeleton is chemically transformed into stone.
在你的骨骼被化学反应转化成石头之前 你要远离风雨
Finally, hope someone happens to dig you up.
最后 希望有人能碰巧挖到你
You can probably see why fossils are so incredibly rare
这下你可能明白为什么化石如此罕见了
yet we’ve still found enough to fill in most of the gaps.
不过我们仍发现了足够多的化石来填补发展史上的大部分空白
But after that gap, the tree starts to come into better focus.
在这一空白之后 进化史开始变得更加清晰
2.4 million years ago that’s definitely part of our family.
240万年前的能人绝对是我们家族的一部分
Probably.
应该是这样
Homo habilis wasn’t the first hominin to use tools,
能人并不是第一个使用工具的古人类
but they really pioneered the whole maker movement.
但他们确实是制作工具的先驱
1.8 MYA, this is definitely our relative
180万年前 直立人绝对是我们的亲戚
Like, I’m almost sure.
我几乎可以肯定
Homo erectus was one of the most successful human species of all time.
直立人是有史以来最成功的人类物种之一
They were on Earth 8X longer than we’ve been so far.
到目前为止 它们在地球上存在的时间比我们长了8倍
They were the first to cook their food,
他们是第一个会烹饪食物的猿类
which fed their larger brains more energy.
这给他们的大脑提供了更多的能量
And they were also the first to move out.
他们也是第一批迁徙出去的人
Homo erectus made it as far east as China and Indonesia.
直立人的足迹远至中国和印度尼西亚
One group even ended up on Flores island,
有一群人甚至最终抵达弗洛雷斯岛
where a genetic twist would shrink them to Hobbit size.
变异基因使它们缩小到霍比特人的大小
700,000 YA a group of Homo erectus back in Africa split into a new human species
70万年前 一群非洲直立人进化成了弗洛里斯人
with brains nearly as large as our own,
他们有着几乎和人类一样大的大脑
creating more advanced tools
能创造出更先进的工具
Some of these humans migrated to Siberia.
一些弗洛里斯人移居到了西伯利亚
Some, into Europe, where they became Neanderthals,
还有一些弗洛里斯人在欧洲进化成了尼安德特人
an intelligent and mysterious species
那是一个聪明又神秘的物种
whose way of life is being completely redefined…
他们的生活方式正在被彻底地重新定义
but we’ll come back to them.
但我们会回到他们身上
A little later, back in Africa, a new branch was budding off.
不久之后 一个新的分支在非洲悄然诞生
The best branch.
那是最好的分支
Our branch, Homo sapiens.
我们的分支 智人
For 200,000 years, Earth has been home to humans
20万年来 地球一直是
anatomically identical to you and me.
与你我在解剖学上完全相同的人类的家园
It’s an incredible idea to look back and consider.
回首往事 这简直令人难以置信
But even more incredible is that
但更令人难以置信的是
until maybe 15,000 years ago, Earth was home ,at some times,
直到大约15000年前 地球在某些时候
to other human cousins in addition to us
是除我们以外的其他人类表亲的家园
We don’t know exactly how many human species
我们不知道到底有多少人类物种
have decorated our family tree in all.
在我们的进化树上有一席之地
How do we even draw lines between them
我们如何在这几千万年的变化中
over 100s of thousands–millions– of years of change,
在它们之间划清界限呢
and even some enter inbreeding
甚至一些猿类会近亲繁殖
I told you it was Game of Bones.
我告诉过你这是《遗骸游戏》
Tracing our story in reverse is full of
回顾这棵参天大树 它充满了
dead end turns, gaps, and fossils we haven’t found yet.
断枝 空白和我们尚未发现的化石
In fact, maybe a tree isn’t the right way to look at it.
事实上 也许以进化树的方式看待它并不那么合适
Stephen Jay Gould said: human ancestry is more like a scraggly bush,
斯蒂芬·杰·古尔德说:人类的祖先更像是一片杂乱无章的灌木丛
full of tangles and shadowy areas,
到处都是混乱和阴暗的地方
and it just so happens we’re the only branch left.
而我们恰好是剩下的唯一分支
Through our human ancestors,
通过我们的人类祖先
we have a good idea on where we come from
我们很清楚我们来自哪里
and what makes us who we are.
以及是什么造就了我们
But the reason we’re the only humans left…
但我们是仅存的人类的原因……
is another story altogether.
完全是另一回事
And we’ll tell that story next time.
我们下次再讲这个故事
Stay curious.
保持好奇
This video is a part of a series of word doing all about this humans story.
这个视频是关于人类故事系列的一部分
you could click there you could find a playlist with all of the videos.
你可以点击那里 你可以找到所有视频的播放列表
And make you subscribe so you don’t miss the next chapter.
记得订阅视频 以免错过下一章

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视频概述

人类的发展史究竟是什么样的?一起来看看吧

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收集自网络

翻译译者

么么叽

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WD9AYN7JnFM

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