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电影中的婴儿

Where babies in movies come from

There’s a pretty awesome scene in The Fate of the Furious
《速度与激情》中有场非常精彩的戏
where Jason Statham fights a bunch of armed mercenaries on an airplane
飞机上 杰森·斯坦森一边护着婴儿篮里可爱的宝宝
while holding an adorable baby in a carrier.
一边与全副武装的雇佣兵打斗
I’ve always wondered how babies end up in situations like this.
我一直好奇 这样的情况下 婴儿最后怎么样了
What kind of hoops do you have to jump through to cast babies in Hollywood?
在好莱坞 你要遵守怎样的规定才能拍摄婴儿?
You were gonna shoot a baby?
“你要对一个孩子下手?
You sick bastard.
简直是丧心病狂”
Besides babysitting, delivering newspapers, and, uh, wreath making,
除了保姆 送报 呃 还有花环制作行业
show business is the only industry that can legally
演艺行业是唯一
employ children under the age of 14
可以合法雇佣14岁以下儿童的行业
In fact, they’ve been in movies almost since the birth of cinema.
实际上 几乎从电影业之初 他们就出现在电影里了
I hate myself so much.
“我真的很讨厌自己”
Casting a baby isn’t as simple as casting a grown up actor though,
拍婴儿并不比拍大人容易
For one: they don’t have to get their shift at Starbucks
尽管他们无需为试镜
covered to go to an audition,
而让别人帮忙在星巴克代班
but mostly because there are some special rules
但主要原因是 拍摄婴儿时
producers have to follow when casting an infant.
制片商必须遵守一些特别的规则
For example, in California,
例如 在加利福尼亚
babies can only be on set for two consecutive hours per day,
婴儿每天只能连续在片场待两小时
with actual work not exceeding 20 minutes “under any circumstances.”
“无论如何” 他们实际工作时间不能超过20分钟
The state’s child labor laws also require that
加州的童工法也规定
babies be at least 15 days old to be eligible for a work permit.
至少15天大的婴儿才可以合法地得到工作许可
Which is good news for babies who can just chill
这对于那些刚出生只会害怕的宝宝来说
during their literal first days on earth,
是一件好事
but not so good for productions that have scenes with newborns
但对那些要拍摄新生儿场景的作品则不然
because the thing is, if you’ve ever seen a baby that’s two weeks old,
因为事实上 如果见过两周大的婴儿
you know that they don’t exactly look like a newborn anymore.
你就知道 他们已经完全不像刚出生的样子了
In order to get past this hurdle, productions often try to cast preemies,
为了解决这个问题 制片商通常选择拍摄早产儿
who look newborn even when they’re the required minimum of 15 days old,
尽管他们出生15天了 但看上去仍像刚出生
and in a lot of places outside of California that’s perfectly legal.
而且在加利福尼亚之外的很多地方 这样做完全合法
In 16 states there are actually zero regulations regarding minimum age for
实际上 有16个州对电影中雇用婴儿的最低年龄
baby employment in films
都没有限制性规定
and many other states have laws that are pretty lax.
其他一些州的法律也相当宽松
In New Jersey for example a month-old baby can work five hours a day, five days a week
像在新泽西 一个月大的婴儿一天可以工作5小时 一周工作5天
and in Louisiana they can be employed six hours a day, six days a week.
在路易斯安那 他们可以一天工作6小时 一周6天
That’s more hours than I worked when I bagged groceries after I graduated college
比我大学毕业后在杂货店打包货物的时间还长
and no I DO NOT want to talk about it.
往事不堪回首啊
Most states also do nothing to protect the money that babies make.
多数州也没有保护婴儿收入的规定
Only a few places follow the Coogan Law,
只有少数地区遵守了《未成年明星权益保护法》
which requires that child actors be set up
该法规定要给儿童演员设立
with a blocked trust account to protect their earnings.
独立信托账户以保障他们的收入
The law is named after Jackie Coogan,
该法律是以Jackie Coogan的名字命名的
an early 20th century child actor who was in
他是20世纪早期的童星
a number of Charlie Chaplin films
曾出演过多部卓别林电影
including the American classic The Kid.
包括那部美国经典《寻子遇仙记》
As a child actor he reportedly earned as much as $4 million,
据报道 他当童星赚的钱多达400万美元
but his parents squandered all his money by the time he became an adult.
不过等到他成年 他的父母早已将他的钱挥霍一空
Because of his s***ty parents, moms and dads in these states
正是由于他卑劣的父母 这些州规定
are required to set aside 15 persent of their minor’s income in a Coogan account,
父母必须将孩子收入的15%存入未成年明星账户
which the child can access at the age of 18.
以便孩子成年后使用该账户
Shooting with babies can be complicated, but the film industry has a way of working around it.
和婴儿一起拍摄很麻烦 但电影业对此有解决之道
I would say 90 to 95 percent of jobs for babies and toddlers
“可以说 婴幼儿90%到95%的拍摄工作
are exclusive to twins and triplets
基本上是双胞胎和三胞胎做的
because two babies can play one character.
因为两个婴儿能饰演同一个角色
So there’s two advantages there.
这样有两个好处
Number one you can have them both come to set at the same time.
一是你可以带他们同时去片场
So if Twin A gets fussy they can call in Twin B
如果双胞胎A不安分 就可以换双胞胎B
and they can use the babies back and forth.
这样就可以持续拍摄下去
And the other thing is sometimes production will split their call times
二是制片商有时分开拍摄他俩
so they’ll have one baby come in let’s say at 9:00 in the morning
比如早上九点他们让一个婴儿开始拍摄
have another baby come in at 2:00 in the afternoon.
下午两点让另一个婴儿过来拍摄
And so it extends their day.
这样就能延长拍摄时间”
Also half of all twins and almost all triplets are born premature,
此外 近一半双胞胎和几乎所有三胞胎都是早产儿
so productions get more working hours and they look newborn.
这样的话 制片商让婴儿工作更多时间并且看起来更像新生儿
Sean Penn had a different solution.
不过西恩·潘没有走寻常路
He directed a movie that nobody saw called The Last Face
他导演了一部冷门的电影《最后的模样》
where they put out a casting call for a one day old baby.
要征集一个一天大的孩子
Since they were shooting in South Africa,
因为他们在南非取景
where you can cast minors with the permission of the Department of Labour,
在这儿 只要有人力资源部的批准
it was totally legal.
拍摄未成年人就是完全合法的
Babies in show biz probably rake in big bucks right?
演艺圈的儿童演员都赚了很多钱吧?
Unfortunately… not.
很不幸…并不是这样
Babies obviously can’t talk,
婴儿显然不能说话
so they are usually classified as an “under 5”,
所以他们常被归为“五句以下”的演员
a term that refers to an actor with less than five lines.
就是在剧中台词少于五句的演员群体
It’s interesting because you can have a baby who is a recurring character on a TV show
“有趣的是 你能在电视上看见一个婴儿反复出现
and has a name that the public can relate to.
并且观众甚至还能记住他们的名字
But a lot of those babies are only getting paid
但是好多婴儿一天的报酬
between 200 and 300 dollars a day.
却只有200到300美元”
So babies don’t really make a ton of money.
所以婴儿并没有赚到大钱
And casting them sounds like kind of a nightmare —
而且拍摄婴儿听起来就像某种噩梦
are there any other options?
那还有其他的办法吗?
Cut to American Sniper:
我们来看《美国狙击手》
Not all of them are as fake as this one,
虽然不是所有的婴儿都这么假
but plenty of productions resort to using fake babies,
但很多制片商会选择拍摄假婴儿
at least for part of the shoot.
至少部分镜头是这样的
Hey! Tend to my daughter please, right now!
“嘿 马上放开我女儿!”
It is quite common that you know they’ll use fake babies
“众所周知 远景拍摄假婴儿是非常普遍的
for the far away scenes and then you know they’ll
当特写或者拍面部的时候
hire a baby when they need a close up shot or a face shot.
再雇用一个真婴儿”
And there are robot babies out there that look pretty convincing.
此外还有可以以假乱真的机械婴儿
And by convincing I mean terrifying.
说以假乱真 我觉得有点吓人
I never thought I’d use a Mandy Moore clip in one of my videos but here we go:
我从没想过自己会剪辑Mandy Moore的镜头 我们来看一下:
They have this one robotic baby.
“他们用一个机械婴儿
It’s weird guys.
朋友们 它很诡异
I have two very emotional scenes
我有两场
where I’m talking to a newborn in the hospital
在医院和刚出生的婴儿说话
and I go to put my hand on the robotic baby
并把手放在这个机械婴儿上的情感戏
and it’s like vibrating and like making these weird movements.
它似乎在振动 而且看起来很不自然”
Babies on screen aren’t going away anytime soon.
短时间内 婴儿不会从荧幕上消失
So until producers find a cheap and easy CGI fix for the baby dilemma,
所以 除非制片商能发现一种廉价容易的特效去解决这个困境
it looks like they’ll continue to have to work
否则他们还要在相关规定之内
within the regulations that are set up.
继续拍摄工作
Or they’ll just cast demonic robot infants who will destroy us all.
不然他们只能用那些会毁了我们的邪恶机械婴儿拍摄了

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视频概述

怎样才能在电影里拍摄一个婴儿?婴儿演员从电影诞生之初就存在了,我们一起来了解一下这种特殊的演员。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Lee

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rf3iHqE240I

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