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当我们为残障人士作出设计时,我们都会获益

When we design for disability, we all benefit | Elise Roy

我永远都不会忘记的声音
I’ll never forget the sound
是与朋友一起时的欢声笑语
of laughing with my friends.
我永远都不会忘记的声音
I’ll never forget the sound
是我睡前妈妈在我旁边说话的声音
of my mother’s voice right before I fell asleep.
我永远都不会忘记 水滴进小溪里发出的悦耳的声音
And I’ll never forget the comforting sound of water trickling down a stream.
可想而知我有那时多害怕 非常害怕
Imagine my fear, pure fear,
我10岁时
when, at the age of 10,
我知道我很快就会失聪
I was told I was going to lose my hearing.
在以后的五年多的日子里
And over the next five years,
情况不断恶化 直到我被诊断为完全失聪
it progressed until I was classified as profoundly deaf.
但是我认为失去听力
But I believe that losing my hearing
是我得到过的最好礼物之一
was one of the greatest gifts I’ve ever received.
你看 我可以通过一种特殊的方式来感受这个世界
You see, I get to experience the world in a unique way.
我相信一些有缺陷的人的独特经历
And I believe that these unique experiences that people with disabilities have
可以帮助我们构思和创造一个更完美的
is what’s going to help us make and design a better world
属于每个人的世界——健全的人和有缺陷的人的世界
for everyone — both for people with and without disabilities.
我曾经是一位维护残疾人权利的律师
I used to be a disability rights lawyer,
我大部分的时间都是花在维权
and I spent a lot of my time focused on enforcing the law,
和解决食宿问题上
ensuring that accommodations were made.
因此我必须快速掌握国际法
And then I had to quickly learn international policy,
因为我被邀请亲执行联合国公约的执行者
because I was asked to work on the UN Convention
它能保护残疾人
that protects people with disabilities.
作为非政府组织的领导
As the leader of the NGO there,
我用了大部分的精力让人们认可
I spent most of my energy trying to convince people
残疾人的才能
about the capabilities of people with disabilities.
然而在这个过程中
But somewhere along the way,
在换了几份工作之后
and after many career transitions
我的父母却不高兴了
that my parents weren’t so happy about —
[笑声]
[Laughter]
几经周折 我最终找到了解决的方法
I stumbled upon a solution
我相信 也许有更强有力的手段
that I believe may be an even more powerful tool
来解决世界上的一些重大问题
to solve some of the world’s greatest problems, disability or not.
那个解决问题的手段叫做设计性思维
And that tool is called design thinking.
设计性思维是创新和问题解决的过程
Design thinking is a process for innovation and problem solving.
分为五个步骤
There are five steps.
首先确定要解决的问题
The first is defining the problem
知道解决问题的限制因素
and understanding its constraints.
其次是观察人们真实的生活情况
The second is observing people in real-life situations
同情他们的遭遇
and empathizing with them.
第三点 设想出几百种方案 越多越好
Third, throwing out hundreds of ideas — the more the better,
越大胆越好
the wilder the better.
第四点 方案验证 整合所有你能找到的
Fourth, prototyping: gathering whatever you can,
所有你能找到的资源
whatever you can find,
来模拟 测试你解决问题的方案
to mimic your solution, to test it
并对你的方案进行改良
and to refine it.
最后是方案实践
And finally, implementation:
确保你提出的解决方案是可行的
ensuring that the solution you came up with is sustainable.
沃伦·贝格尔说设计性思维能让我们学会从不同的角度看待问题
Warren Berger says that design thinking teaches us to look sideways,
让我们学会重组问题 如何改善情况 如何进行实验
to reframe, to refine, to experiment
也许最重要的是
and, probably most importantly,
会提出那些愚蠢的问题
ask those stupid questions.
有设计性思维的人认为每个人都有创新能力
Design thinkers believe that everyone is creative.
他们想要把不同领域的人召集到一起
They believe in bringing people from multiple disciplines together,
因为他们希望能分享不同的观点
because they want to share multiple perspectives
集中 整合每个人的观点
and bring them together and ultimately merge them
最后生成新的观点
to form something new.
设计性思维是一种非常成功和万能的方法
Design thinking is such a successful and versatile tool
它几乎适用于每一个行业
that it has been applied in almost every industry.
我意识到它具有能解决我所面临的问题的潜力
I saw the potential that it had for the issues I faced,
所以我决定回到学校
so I decided to go back to school
攻读社会设计学博士学位
and get my master’s in social design.
这门学科注重如何运用设计理念来为世界做出积极的改变
This looks at how to use design to create positive change in the world.
在大学期间
While I was there,
我爱上了木工艺术
I fell in love with woodworking.
但是我很快意识到
But what I quickly realized
我欠缺了一些能力
was that I was missing out on something.
就是 当你在使用一个工具的时候
As you’re working with a tool,
在它踫到你之前
right before it’s about to kick back at you —
就是当木材或工具卡住 跳起来打到你之前
which means the piece or the tool jumps back at you —
它发出的声音
it makes a sound.
我根本听不到
And I couldn’t hear this sound.
所以我做出了一个决定
So I decided,
为什么不试着去解决这个问题
why not try and solve it?
我的解决方法是一副安全眼镜
My solution was a pair of safety glasses
它能监测工具产生的高音变化
that were engineered to visually alert the user
并在人类耳朵听到之前
to pitch changes in the tool,
就用视觉提示的方式警告使用者
before the human ear could pick it up.
为什么设计工具的人之前没想到这点呢
Why hadn’t tool designers thought of this before?
[笑声]
[Laughter]
原因有两个:第一 我是一个初学者
Two reasons: one, I was a beginner.
我没有被所谓的专业知识或者传统观念束缚住
I wasn’t weighed down by expertise or conventional wisdom.
第二 我听不见
The second is: I was Deaf.
我独特的经历能帮我形成自己解决问题的方法
My unique experience of the world helped inform my solution.
随着工作的继续 我不断地想出越来越多的解决方案
And as I went on, I kept running into more and more solutions
那些最初为残障人士提出的方案
that were originally made for people with disabilities,
最终也受到主流大众的
and that ended up being picked up,
拥戴和喜爱
embraced and loved by the mainstream,
不论他们是否残疾
disability or not.
这是一个 OXO 马铃薯削皮器
This is an OXO potato peeler.
它最初是为有关节炎的人设计的
It was originally designed for people with arthritis,
但受到很多人欢迎 因为它用起来毫不费力
but it was so comfortable, everybody loved it.
发信息原本是为耳聋的人设计的
Text messaging: that was originally designed for people who are Deaf.
但你懂的 大家都喜欢发信息
And as you know, everybody loves that, too.
[笑声]
[Laughter]
我开始想
I started thinking:
如果我们转变一下思维方式
What if we changed our mindset?
如果我们使用的东西一开始就是为残疾人设计的
What if we started designing for disability first —
而不是为健全的人设计的
not the norm?
就像你看到的那样 要是我们的设计理念一开始就是以残疾人为中心
As you see, when we design for disability first,
我们不但会经常发现一些意想不到的解决方案
we often stumble upon solutions that are not only inclusive,
而且还发现这比我们为健全人提出的设计理念还要好
but also are often better than that we design for the norm.
这让我备受鼓舞
And this excites me,
因为这意味着用来接纳
because this means that the energy it takes to accommodate someone
一位残障人士的精力
with a disability
可以被利用 被塑造 被接纳
can be leveraged, molded and played with
作为一种创造和革新的动力
as a force for creativity and innovation.
这让我们从尝试改变内心的心态
This moves us from the mindset of trying to change the hearts
和缺少包容的心态
and the deficiency mindset of tolerance,
转变至成为一个能奇迹创造的炼金术师
to becoming an alchemist,
世界也极需这类神奇的人物
the type of magician that this world so desperately needs
来解决某些重大的问题
to solve some of its greatest problems.
现在 我还相信
Now, I also believe
残障人士有成为设计师的巨大潜能
that people with disabilities have great potential to be designers
在这个设计与思考的过程中
within this design-thinking process.
我根本不知道 我从很小的时候
Without knowing it, from a very early age,
就已经是一位不断磨练自己技能的设计思考者
I’ve been a design thinker, fine-tuning my skills.
有设计性思维的人自然也善于解决问题
Design thinkers are, by nature, problem solvers.
想象一下 你正在聆听一段对话
So imagine listening to a conversation
而你只能理解 50% 的内容
and only understanding 50 percent of what is said.
你不能要求他们重复每一个单词
You can’t ask them to repeat every single word.
否则他们会对你感到不耐烦
They would just get frustrated with you.
所以即使没有听懂
So without even realizing it,
我的解决办法是记住那个我听到的细小的声音
my solution was to take the muffled sound that I heard,
也就是说话的节奏
that was the beat,
把它变成一种韵律 然后和我看到的唇形匹配
and turn it into a rhythm and place it with the lips I read.
多年后 有人说我写的文章很押韵
Years later, someone commented that my writing had a rhythm to it.
嗯 那是因为我是用韵律在体会对话
Well, this is because I experience conversations as rhythms.
我还变得非常非常擅于失败
I also became really, really good at failing.
[笑声]
[Laughter]
真的是这样
Quite literally.
我第一学期的西班牙语课成绩是D
My first semester in Spanish, I got a D.
但我从中学到的是 只要我重拾信心
But what I learned was that when I picked myself up
做些积极的改变
and changed a few things around,
最终 我就能成功
eventually, I succeeded.
同样的道理 设计性思维鼓励人们尝试失败
Similarly, design thinking encourages people to fail
经常去尝试
and fail often,
因为最后 你总会成功的
because eventually, you will succeed.
世上几乎没有什么伟大的发明
Very few great innovations in this world
在第一次尝试时就能成功的
have come from someone succeeding on the first try.
我也在我的体育生涯中懂得了这个道理
I also experienced this lesson in sports.
我永远都不会忘记 我的教练对我妈妈说的话
I’ll never forget my coach saying to my mom,
如果她没有失去听力
“If she just didn’t have her hearing loss,
她就能进入国家队
she would be on the national team.”
但是我和我的教练 在那个时候不知道的是
But what my coach, and what I didn’t even know at the time,
其实我失去听力反倒帮助我擅长于运动
was that my hearing loss actually helped me excel at sports.
要知道 当你失去听觉的时候 你不单要调适你的行为
You see, when you lose your hearing, not only do you adapt your behavior,
你也要调适你的感官
but you also adapt your physical senses.
举个例子
One example of this
我的视觉专注范围增加了
is that my visual attention span increased.
想象一名足球运动员 从左侧跑过来
Imagine a soccer player, coming down the left flank.
想象自己是一名守门员 像我一样
Imagine being goalkeeper, like I was,
那个球正从左侧向下而来
and the ball is coming down the left flank.
一个有听觉的正常人 会是这样的视觉视角
A person with normal hearing would have the visual perspective of this.
而我享有这么宽的视野范围
I had the benefit of a spectrum this wide.
所以我可以注意到那边的球员
So I picked up the players over here,
正在移动并且沿着场地跑过来
that were moving about and coming down the field.
我可以很快注意到他们 所以一旦传球
And I picked them up quicker, so that if the ball was passed,
我能改变自己的位置并准备好阻挡那个射门
I could reposition myself and be ready for that shot.
正如你所看到的
So as you can see,
我几乎一生都是一名设计思考者
I’ve been a design thinker for nearly all my life.
我的观察力历经经年累月的磨练
My observation skills have been honed so that I pick up on things
能觉察其他人未能发现之事
that others would never pick up on.
我持续适应环境的需要 让我成为一个足智多谋的人
My constant need to adapt has made me a great ideator
和解决问题的专家
and problem solver.
我常常需要在有限的条件下解决问题
And I’ve often had to do this within limitations and constraints.
这也是设计者经常需要面对的
This is something that designers also have to deal with frequently.
我最近期的工作让我去了海地
My work most recently took me to Haiti.
设计思考者经常寻找极端的情况
Design thinkers often seek out extreme situations,
因为那些情况会让他们想到一些他们最好的设计
because that often informs some of their best designs.
海地——像是一场完美的风暴
And Haiti — it was like a perfect storm.
我在那里生活和工作
I lived and worked with 300 Deaf individuals
和300名在2010年地震后被重新安顿的听障人士一起
that were relocated after the 2010 earthquake.
但是五年半以后
But five and a half years later,
那里还是没有电
there still was no electricity;
没有安全的饮用水
there still was no safe drinking water;
没有工作机会
there were still no job opportunities;
却有猖獗的犯罪行为 并且不会受到惩罚
there was still rampant crime, and it went unpunished.
国际救援组织一个接一个到来
International aid organizations came one by one.
但是他们都是
But they came
带着预先决定好的方案而来
with pre-determined solutions.
而不是准备来观察并且
They didn’t come ready to observe and to adapt
根据社区的需求而做出调整
based on the community’s needs.
一个组织给了他们山羊和鸡
One organization gave them goats and chickens.
但是他们没有意识到
But they didn’t realize
在那个社区中 饥饿程度太严重了
that there was so much hunger in that community,
当耳聋的人晚上睡觉听不见声音
that when the Deaf went to sleep at night and couldn’t hear,
人们闯入他们的院子和家里
people broke into their yards and their homes
然后偷走那些鸡和山羊
and stole these chickens and goats,
最终 鸡和山羊都没了
and eventually they were all gone.
那时 如果那个组织花点时间
Now, if that organization had taken the time
观察耳聋的人和他们的社区
to observe Deaf people, to observe the community,
他们会意识到存在的问题
they would have realized their problem
可能他们会想到解决办法
and perhaps they would have come up with a solution,
比如像太阳光一样的东西
something like a solar light,
点亮一个安全的畜栏 然后晚上把动物放进去
lighting up a secure pen to put them in at night
以保证它们的安全
to ensure their safety.
你不需要成为一名设计思考者
You don’t have to be a design thinker
才能实践我今天与你分享的想法
to insert the ideas I’ve shared with you today.
你是有创造力的
You are creative.
你是一名设计者
You are a designer —
每个人都是
everyone is.
请让像我一样的人来帮助你
Let people like me help you.
请让残障人士帮助你从另一侧面看待问题
Let people with disabilities help you look sideways,
并在这个过程中
and in the process,
解决一些最困难的问题
solve some of the greatest problems.
就是这样 谢谢
That’s it. Thank you.
[掌声]
[Applause]

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视频概述

艾莉斯·罗伊(Elise Roy)说,“我认为失去听觉是我所收到的最好的礼物之一“。作为一名残障人士维权律师和设计思考者,她知道没有听觉让她得以用独特的方式来体验和重新理解这世界——这是一个可以解决我们一些大问题的观点。正如她所说:“当我们首先为残障人士作出设计时,你经常会意外发现比我们为正常人所作的设计还要更好的解决方案。”

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

B11101001

审核员

赖皮

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g2m97gPI70I

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