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橡树成熟时

When Trees Go Nuts

本视频取之于观众 用之于观众
This video was brought to you by you.
嗨 我是分钟地球的Emily
Hi, this is Emily from MinuteEarth.
对加拿大育空地区的红松鼠来说
For the red squirrels of Canada’s Yukon territory,
2010是格外忙碌的一年
2010 was an extra busy year.
每逢秋天 松鼠们都要从白云杉树上采集球果
Every fall, the squirrels gather seed-cones from white spruce trees
并囤积在地下以供后用
and hoard them underground for later,
大多数年节中 每棵树能产约100个球果
and most years, each tree produces around one hundred cones.
但在2010年
But in 2010,
该地区的白云杉都走上了曲折增长的产果之路
all the white spruces in the region cranked their cone-making way up,
每棵树差不多结了3000个球果
producing almost three thousand cones each.
这种情况并不奇怪
This wasn’t a freak event
该现象称为 大量结实
– it’s a phenomenon called masting,
即一个区域中 特定品种的植物
in which all the plants of a particular species in an area
会全部投入到疯狂的 大规模育种盛宴中
go totally nuts in a big baby-making bonanza.
奇怪的是
Which is weird…
相隔几百英里的树木是怎样彼此配合的呢?
how can trees coordinate with each other over hundreds of miles?
而且为什么它们要这样?
And why do they go to the effort?
它们不能远距离商议
Well, they can’t talk over long distances,
所以我们认为它们是在响应相同的区域气象信号
so we think they’re all responding to the same regional weather cues,
譬如降雨和暖春气温
like rainfall and warm springtime temperatures.
而且 这种天气可能只是非常适合育种
And, that weather might simply be particularlygood for baby-making.
但是 还可能是因为树木把天气
But it’s also possible that the trees are using the weather
当成了行事更有策略的一种信号
as a cue to do something a lot more strategic.
对于依靠风媒
For species that rely on the wind to carry male pollen
异株异花进行传粉的物种
from one tree to the female flowers of another,
让每棵树都孕育出更多种子的方式
the best way for any one tree to make lots of babies
就是所有树木都大量产粉并开花
is for all the trees to make lots of pollen and lots of flowers.
但因为每年的成长都要耗费大量能量
But because going big every year takes a ton of energy,
于是某类树木为了偶尔才有的传粉盛宴
some types of trees may have evolved to save up their reproductive energy
就进化出了贮存繁衍所需能量的能力
for occasional tree-sex extravaganzas.
某类树木还把”大量结实”
Some types of trees also seem to use masting
当成了一种保护其种子不被猎食的方式
as a way to protect their seeds from seed predators.
例如 松鼠们爱吃橡果
For example, squirrels like to eat acorns,
这对橡树来说就是个问题
which is a problem for oak trees
因为被吃掉的橡果就长不成橡树了
because acorns that get eaten don’t become trees.
而且 如果一定数量的橡树
And, if a population of oak trees
每年产出的橡果总量都一样
produces the same number of acorns every year,
那该地区松鼠的数目可能就会增长
the local population of squirrels will likely grow
直到松鼠恰好能吃掉这么多的橡果为止
until it can eat just that number of acorns.
但如果大部分年节中 橡果产量都持续低迷
But if the oak trees keep acorn production low most years,
那松鼠的数目也会一直多不了
the squirrel population will also stay low,
然后 在所谓的”大量结实”年节中
and then, during so-called mast years,
为数不多的松鼠傻吃海塞
those few squirrels can stuff themselves silly
也不会让橡果数明显降低
without putting a dent in the acorn supply,
留下的大量的橡果就可以发芽长大
leaving plenty behind to sprout and grow.
所以 对某些树来说
So for some trees,
“大量结实”是无需粪肥
masting could be a way to extend the life of their species,
就能让它们延续种族生命的方式
without becoming feces.
这种古韵因你而存
That classy rhyme was brought to you by you.
我们的赞助人和YouTube赞助人认为
Our Patreon Patrons and YouTube Sponsors recognize that,
不同于坚果
unlike nuts,
分钟地球的资金得之不易
funding for MinuteEarth doesn’t grow on trees.
如果你还未赞助过分钟地球
If you don’t yet support MinuteEarth,
而且还乐于知晓有关授粉
and you like learning about tree sex
和其他一些奇怪的 美妙的事情
and other weird and wonderful things,
考虑下 去Patreon.com/MinuteEarth上赞助我们点呗~
consider supporting us by going to Patreon.com/MinuteEarth
保证每一集能有1美元就行~
and pledging as little as one dollar per episode.
也可以在YouTube的这里赞助我们
You can also support us from right here on YouTube
点击视频下方的”Sponsor”按钮就行
by clicking the “Sponsor” button below the video.
有亲的资助 我们能一直产出好的科学视频
With your help, we can keep making great science videos –
并扩展我们收集的押韵尾联
and expand our collection of rhyming poop couplets.

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视频概述

松鼠爱橡果,吃也吃不够,于是被猎食的橡树为了下一代有了小心机~๑乛v乛๑嘿嘿

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

🔥云四

审核员

审核员H

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EQ748TZcuqs

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