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荷兰人统治下的世界

When The Dutch Ruled The World: Rise and Fall of the Dutch East India Company

荷兰 一个欧洲小国家
The Netherlands: a tiny European country
却是欧洲最富裕 最重要的经济中心之一
that is actually one of the wealthiest and most important economic centres of the continent.
荷兰的惊人成就离不了一家公司
The surprising success of the Dutch is invariably tied to one company,
它可能是历史上最伟大最成功的一家公司
which was arguably the greatest and most successful one in history.
今天 我们就来看看荷兰
Today, we’ll see how the Netherlands transformed
如何借助荷兰东印度公司
from swampy backwater into a global trading empire-
从一潭死水 摇身一变成为全球贸易帝国
thanks to the Dutch East India Company.
本视频由《切达TV》赞助播出
This video is brought to you by Cheddar
他们制作了一期和香料有关的视频
who made a video about a different kind of spice
但此“香料”非荷兰人交易的香料
than the ones the Dutch were trading,
当你看完这条视频 欢迎去了解他们的频道
but when you’ve finished here, make sure to check out their channel.
今天的荷兰或许是一个强大的经济集团
The Netherlands today might be an economic powerhouse,
但回看十六世纪
but back in the 16th century,
它还未如此强大
well, it wasn’t doing too great.
在建立全球贸易帝国之前 它甚至还未独立
To start things off, it wasn’t even independent.
而是在西班牙帝国的统治之下
instead it was under the domain of the Spanish Empire.
作为欧洲早期几个殖民国家之一
As one of the earliest European colonizers,
西班牙帝国掌控着世界上广阔的领土
the Spanish Empire controlled vast territories across the world
并且将从奴隶交易中掠夺到的财富
and used the money it gained from slavery trade
作为发动无数征服和压制别国的战争所需的资金
to fund numerous wars of conquest and suppression.
荷兰最终也成为了西班牙扩张战争的牺牲品
The Netherlands ultimately became victim of one such war.
不知不觉就沦为了西班牙帝国殖民的一部分
They had become part of the empire unwittingly due to marriage
并且在接下来的80年里都在试图争取自由
and spent the next 80 years trying to break free.
然而荷兰人在早期争取独立的路上就遇到了一个大麻烦
But the Dutch independence effort ran into a big problem very early on.
众所周知 荷兰是航海民族
You see, the Dutch were a seafaring people
他们擅长捕鱼和海上贸易
fishing and mercantile shipping was their thing
并且已经从事这一行业几百年
and they had been doing it for centuries.
他们运输的主要商品是来自远东地区的香料
The main goods they shipped were spices coming from the Far East,
但这是在荷兰人拥有他们自己的殖民地之前的事情
but this was before the Dutch had any colonies of their own.
在那时 葡萄牙是真正意义上的香料贸易垄断者
Back then Portugal held a virtual monopoly on the spice trade,
控制着所有往来亚洲的主要贸易通道
controlling all the major trade routes to Asia and back.
因此 荷兰人能做的就是购买来自里斯本的香料
Thus, what the Dutch did was to buy all their spices from Lisbon
然后将它们运到欧洲各地卖出获利
and then ship them around Europe to sell them at a profit.
但在1580年 葡萄牙被西班牙帝国吞并了
But Portugal was absorbed into the Spanish Empire in 1580,
显然 西班牙人做的第一件事
and of course, the first thing the Spanish did
就是把里斯本到荷兰的商船通道封锁了
was to close off Lisbon to the Dutch merchants.
突然之间 荷兰经济的大动脉就被切断了
Suddenly the main artery of the Dutch economy had been cut off
而荷兰商船队唯一能做的
and there was really only one thing the Dutch merchants could do
就是不得不航行至远东 建立自己的贸易网络
they had to sail to Far East and build their own trading network.
最初 这种尝试收效甚微
At first this effort was very decentralized
来自荷兰各个城市的商船队争相建立公司开发航线
merchants from various Dutch cities would establish companies for single voyages.
事实上这些公司会资助一些船队和船员
Essentially, they would fund a few ships and their sailors
并派遣船队去远东探索新的贸易航线
and they would send them off to find a new trade route to the Far East.
有一些派遣任务是成功的 而且带回了许多香料
Some missions were successful and came back with lots of spices,
但大多时候并不顺利
but most did not go very smoothly.
在远征探索的前六年
During the first six years of the expedition effort
共派遣出65艘船
a total of 65 ships were sent out.
十分之一的船队没有再回来
1 in 10 never made it back,
而回来的那些船队 也只带回约三分之一的船员
and those that did came back with only a third of their crew on average.
足以说明早期在这些商船队当船员 是一项非常危险的工作
Suffice to say, being a sailor in these early fleets wasn’t a very safe job.
尽管如此 这些早期航行给荷兰人带来了丰富的认知和经验
Nevertheless these early voyages gave the Dutch the knowledge and experience
帮助他们创立了一个牢不可破的贸易网络
on how to establish a more permanent trading network.
但独立商船队之间互相竞争
But coordinating individual merchants,
要让它们互相配合协作绝非易事
each of whom was competing with the rest, is difficult to say the least
由于英国人 西班牙人和葡萄牙人全都在试图建立自己的贸易帝国
and with the English, Spanish and Portuguese all trying to create their own trading empires,
荷兰人深知他们自己必须团结起来
the Dutch knew that they had to band together.
1602年 在荷兰首相的授权下
In 1602 under the patronage of the Prime Minister of Holland,
许多航运公司 联合组成了一个有着巨大实权的公司
the various expedition companies united into a single company with vast sovereign power.
虽然我们现在叫它荷兰东印度公司
It’s name wasn’t the Dutch East India Company,
但当时它还不叫这个名字
even though that’s how we call it today.
当时叫联合东印度公司 简称VOC
It was actually the United East India Company, or VOC for short
东印度公司的成立开启了荷兰历史的崭新篇章
and its creation marked a new chapter in the history of the Netherlands.
荷兰的政治动机很明确
The political motivations were clear:
荷兰人需要一个新的经济发展动力来抗衡西班牙
the Dutch needed a new economic engine to fight off the Spanish
从而重建他们饱受战乱破坏的祖国
and to restore their wartorn country.
联合东印度公司则是他们的救命稻草
The VOC was their only hope
这就是为什么 联合东印度公司不仅可进行贸易垄断
which is why it was granted not only a monopoly on trade,
而且还有能力培养自己的军队
but also the ability to train its own army,
具有谈判和宣战权 还能占领土地 甚至实施奴隶制
to negotiate and declare war, to occupy land and even to enforce slavery.
但如果他们无法完成实质性的任务
But just getting permission to do all these things meant nothing
仅仅获得这些特权也将毫无意义
if the VOC couldn’t actually do them,
并且征服远东还需要大量资金
and to conquer the Far East would require a lot of capital.
然而VOC提出了一个绝妙的解决方案
The VOC, however, figured out an ingenious solution,
这个方案在后来成为现代资本主义的基石
which would later on become the cornerstone of modern capitalism.
在阿姆斯特丹中心 VOC建立了一个贸易商行
In the center of Amsterdam, the VOC built a trading house,
所有的荷兰公民都可以在那里买卖公司股票
where every Dutch citizen could go and buy shares of the company,
这立刻给VOC聚敛了财富
effectively giving the VOC money now
荷兰公民以此换取voc对未来收益的承诺
in exchange for a claim on its profits in the future.
VOC成功地创造了世界第一个证券市场
The VOC had effectively created the world’s first stock market
也成为了历史上首个公开交易公司
and the VOC itself had become the first publicly-traded company in history.
非常多的荷兰富人在VOC投资
Pretty much every rich man in the Netherlands invested in the VOC
而且有许多移民者也在投资
and even many immigrants did so.
VOC首次公开募股就超过了总计600万荷兰盾
In total, the VOC’s initial public offering raised over 6 million guilders,
相当于今天的1.1亿美元
which is equivalent to about $110 million today.
而且别忘了
And keep in mind,
这是一个被西班牙占领了一半的国家
this is coming from a country that’s half-occupied by Spain
然而 西班牙的经济却在十年后陷入萧条
and whose economy had been in the drain for a decade.
当然 形势对于荷兰十分有利
Of course, circumstances were favorable to the Dutch:
当时西班牙帝国正在和英国打仗
the Spanish Empire was at war with England at the time,
让荷兰人趁机横扫远东
allowing the Dutch to sweep into the Far East
并将葡萄牙公司踢出局
and kick out the Portuguese establishment.
VOC殖民野心的首个牺牲者是印度尼西亚
The first victim of the VOC’s colonial ambitions was Indonesia:
1611年 荷兰人征服了今天的雅加达
the Dutch conquered modern-day Jakarta in 1611,
屠杀当地人 并且在周围岛屿广泛种植香料
slaughtering the locals and building vast spice plantations on nearby islands.
VOC还在爪哇岛上建立了总部
With the island of Java as its headquarters,
它的名声因此遍及远东
the VOC spread throughout the Far East.
他们在印度的工厂生产精美的丝绸和纤维织品
Their factories in India produced exquisite silks and fabrics,
然后运到日本
which the VOC then shipped to Japan
换取名贵的银器
to trade for their famous and crucial supply of silver.
在中国换取丝绸和珍贵的瓷器
The VOC got silk from China as well, which also produced valuable porcelain.
不过更重要的是 联合东印度公司通过垄断这些贸易线路
What matters though, is that the profits margins the VOC earned
赚取的利润高达1500%
by monopolizing these trade routes were as high as 1500%,
当然 所有的财富都流入了荷兰
and all of this money was of course being funneled into the Netherlands.
荷兰最终在1648年赢得独立
They finally won their independence in 1648
独立之后
and with that out of the way
VOC将利润投资于荷兰的一项独特计划:开垦土地
the VOC’s profits were invested in one type of project unique to the Netherlands: land reclamation.
你知道 荷兰地势非常平坦 而且陆地在海平面之下
You see, the Netherlands is extremely flat and is below sea level,
很容易发洪水
which makes it prone to flooding;
但如果建立堤坝用来防洪
but if you build dikes and keep the water out,
就可以将湿地变成农田
you can turn swamps into farmland
这也正是荷兰人用VOC赚到的钱所做的
and that’s exactly what the Dutch did withtheir VOC profits.
看看这个地形变化
Just by looking at the geography
你就可以知道VOC在何时全力开垦土地
you can tell when the VOC was running at full force.
联合东印度公司总共有1700多艘商船
In total, over one and a half thousand ships sailed for the VOC
它延续了两个世纪 影响甚至延续至今
during its two centuries of existence and its influence is still felt to this day.
许多荷兰的前殖民地就是一个例子
Many former Dutch colonies for example,
他们遭受压迫留下的伤疤仍未痊愈
still bear the scars of the oppression they suffered.
但关于VOC还有一些鲜为人知的遗留影响
But the VOC has other interesting legaciesthat few people know.
以开普敦为例 它在1652年被当作VOC的一个补给基地
Cape Town, for instance, started out as a VOC resting station in 1652.
十年前
A decade earlier,
VOC的一个商船队 在荷兰印度群岛南部发现了两块陆地
a VOC merchant discovered two big land masses south of the Dutch Indies.
塔斯曼将它们分别命名为新荷兰和新西兰
He called them New Holland and New Zeeland
你可以猜猜哪个名字被保留了 哪一个没有
and you can guess which name stuck and which one didn’t.
无论如何
But in any case,
正如理想的环境给予荷兰人成为殖民帝国的机会一样
just as the ideal set of circumstances gave the Dutch the opportunity to become a colonial empire,
18世纪末的一场暴风骤雨最终摧毁了VOC
a perfect storm in the late 18th century ended up destroying the VOC.
首先
To start things off,
1784年 荷兰在与英国的战争中完败
the Dutch lost a disastrous war against the British in 1784
摧毁了VOC在亚洲的贸易网络
which disrupted the VOC’s network in Asia.
十年之后
Then, just a decade later,
新成立的法兰西共和国入侵并征服了荷兰
the newly-created French Republic invaded the Netherlands and conquered them.
在英国和法国内外夹击下
WIth the British attacking in Asia and the French attacking at home,
VOC再无翻身机会 1799年正式宣告破产
the VOC really had no chance and officially went into bankruptcy in 1799.
可悲的是没有了香料贸易的荷兰最终失去了全球地位
Sadly, without the spice trade the Netherlands lost their status as a global power.
对了 说起香料
And speaking of spice,
赞助了本视频的《切达TV》
Cheddar, who were kind enough to sponsor this episode,
制作了一个关于近来最具标志性的营销活动
made a great video on how Old Spice was saved
如何使“老香料”品牌起死回生的优质视频
by one of the most iconic marketing campaigns in recent history.
要知道
If you don’t know,
《切达TV》将商业和科技知识
Cheddar’s channel covers business and technology
融入到有趣的短视频中 让你欲罢不能
in fun bite-sized videos that leave you craving for more.
所以如果你还没看过 就去《切达TV》看看吧
So if you haven’t seen them, go check out their channel,
欢迎订阅频道观看更多视频
watch the video and consider subscribing if you wanna see more.
不论如何 感谢观看
In any case, thank you for watching.
如果你喜欢联合东印度公司的故事
If you like the story of the VOC,
欢迎订阅频道 点赞视频
consider liking the video and subscribing if you haven’t already.
两周内我们就有更新啦
We’re gonna be seeing each other again in two weeks,
在那之前 请保持机智
and until then, stay smart.

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视频概述

历史及商业爱好者看过来,本视频详细介绍了荷兰东印度公司的兴衰。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

fish

审核员

审核员_BA

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ewCs5CF5HEg

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