未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

当行动阻碍了自我提高

When performing gets in the way of improving | Eduardo Briceño | TEDxManhattanBeach

我们中大多数人
Most of us go through life trying to do our best
凡事都想尽善尽美
at whatever we do,
无论是我们的工作 家庭 学业
whether it’s our job, family, schoolb
或其他的事
or anything else.
至少我是这样感觉的 我有全力以赴
I feel that way. I try my best.
但不久之前 我突然意识到
But some time ago, I came to a realization
在我最在意的事情上
that I wasn’t getting much better
我并没有做得更好
at the things I cared most about,
无论是作为丈夫 朋友
whether it was being a husband or a friend
专业人士 或队友
or a professional or teammate,
我并没有在这些事上取得很大提升
and I wasn’t improvingmuch at those things
尽管我花了大量时间
even though I was spending a lot of time
也非常地努力
working hard at them.
我从曾经的对话和研究中意识到
I’ve since realized from conversationsI’ve had and from research
尽管我们付出了努力
that this stagnation, despite hard work,
这种止步不前的状态其实非常普遍
turns out to be pretty common.
所以我想和你们分享一些深刻的见解
So I’d like to share with some insights
关于造成这种现状的原因
into why that is
以及我们又能些做什么
and what we can all do about it
我发现 我们可以模仿
What I’ve learnedis that the most effective people
其他领域高效率的人和团队做的事
and teams in any domain do something we can all emulate.
他们刻意地让生活在两个区中相互交替
They go through life deliberatelyalternating between two zones:
学习区和执行区
the learning zoneand the performance zone.
学习区我们的主要目的是提升自己
The learning zoneis when our goal is to improve.
因此我们会做一些为提升而设计的活动
Then we do activitiesdesigned for improvement,
关注于我们还没有掌握的事物上
concentrating on whatwe haven’t mastered yet,
这也就意味着 我们会犯错
which means we have to expectto make mistakes,
明白我们需要从错误中学习
knowing that we will learn from them.
这和我们在执行区的所作所为
That is very different from what we do when we’re
截然不同
in our performance zone,
此时 我们的目标是竭尽所能 尽善尽美
which is when our goal is to do something as best
重于执行
as we can, to execute.
我们会专注已经掌握的技能
Then we concentrateon what we have already mastered
尽量减少错误
and we try to minimize mistakes.
两个区都是我们生活的一部分
Both of these zonesshould be part of our lives,
但值得明确的是
but being clear
何时我们想处于何区
about when we want to be in each of them,
目标不同 重心不同 期待不同
with what goal, focus and expectations,
都会帮助我们更好地执行和提升
helps us better performand better improve.
执行区能最大化我们的即时执行能力
The performance zone maximizesour immediate performance,
而学习区能最大化我们的提升
while the learning zonemaximizes our growth
以及我们未来的执行能力
and our future performance.
我们大多数人 尽管付出了努力
The reason many of us don’t improve much
却止步不前的原因
despite our hard work
是因为 我们倾向于
is that we tend to spend almost all
把我们所有时间都花在执行区
of our time in the performance zone.
这阻碍了我们的成长
This hinders our growth,
而且讽刺的是 从长期来看也阻碍了我们的执行能力
and ironically, over the long term, also our performance.
那学习区长什么样子呢
So what does the learning zone look like?
以古希腊的一位政治领袖 德摩斯蒂尼为例
Take Demosthenes, a political leader
他是最杰出的雄辩家 同时也是律师
and the greatest oratorand lawyer in ancient Greece.
为了成为卓越的人 他并没有把所有的时间
To become great,he didn’t spend all his time
只用于做雄辩家或律师
just being an orator or a lawyer,
也就是他的执行区
which would be his performance zone.
而是做了为提高自己设计的活动
But instead, he did activitiesdesigned for improvement.
当然 他也投入大量学习时间
Of course, he studied a lot.
在导师的指导下 他学习法律和哲学
He studied law and philosophywith guidance from mentors,
他深知
but he also realized
作为律师就涉及到说服他人
that being a lawyer involved persuading other people,
因此他还学习了演讲
so he also studied great speeches
和表演
and acting.
为了摆脱
To get rid
他无意识耸肩的怪习惯
of an odd habit he had of involuntarily lifting his shoulder,
他对着镜子练习演讲
he practiced his speechesin front of a mirror,
在天花板上悬挂一把剑
and he suspended a sword from the ceiling
如果他耸肩 就会被刺痛
so that if he raised his shoulder, it would hurt.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
为了发音更加清晰 正确发出咬舌音
To speak more clearly despite a lisp,
他会含着石子练习演讲
he went through his speecheswith stones in his mouth.
并建了一间地下室 免于练习时被打扰
He built an underground room where he could practicewithout interruptions
这样也不会打扰到别人
and not disturb other people.
因为古希腊的法庭非常的吵闹
And since courts at the timewere very noisy,
他特意面对大海进行练习
he also practiced by the ocean,
让自己的声音压过海浪的咆哮
projecting his voice above the roar of the waves.
他在学习区的活动
His activities in the learning zone
与在法庭上的表现截然不同
were very different from his activities in court,
即他的执行区
his performance zone.
他在学习区做的是安德斯·埃里克森博士提出的“刻意练习”
In the learning zone, he did what Dr. Anders Ericsson calls deliberate practice.
这需要把能力拆分成细小的技能
This involves breaking downabilities into component skills,
清楚我们要提高哪些子技能
being clear about what subskillwe’re working to improve,
就像练习不耸肩一样
like keeping our shoulders down,
密切专注高难度的挑战
giving full concentration to a high level of challenge
跳出我们的舒适区尝试当前我们不会的事
outside our comfort zone, just beyond what we can currently do,
通过重复和调整 不断给自己反馈
using frequent feedbackwith repetition and adjustments,
最好有位优秀导师指导
and ideally engaging the guidanceof a skilled coach,
因为专门为提升而设计的练习
because activitiesdesigned for improvement
正是你从事的领域所需要的
are domain-specific, and great teachers
好的导师和教练知道这些练习
and coaches know what those activities are
也可以给我们专业的反馈
and can also give us expert feedback.
通过学习区这类型的练习
It is this type of practicein the learning zone
会引起到明显的提升而不是一味的关注执行区
which leads to substantial improvement, not just time on task performing.
例如 研究表明工作几年之后
For example, research showsthat after the first couple of years
我们会陷入停滞期
working in a profession, performance usually plateaus.
这条规则同样适用于教学 大众医学
This has been shown to be truein teaching, general medicine,
医护及其他领域
nursing and other fields,
这条规则之所以适用
and it happens
因为我们一旦觉得自己能力足够好完全可以胜任时
because once we think we have become good enough, adequate,
我们就不会再花时间在学习区
then we stop spending timein the learning zone.
我会把所有时间花在工作上 即执行区
We focus all our timeon just doing our job, performing,
结果这并不是很好的提升方式
which turns out not to be a great way to improve.
但那些愿意花时间
But the people who continue to spend time
在学习区的人
in the learning zone
一直在进步
do continue to always improve.
顶尖的销售人员 至少一周一次
The best salespeople at least once a week
以提高自己为目的 做练习
do activities withthe goal of improvement.
他们通过阅读增长知识
They read to extend their knowledge,
向同事或专家进行咨询
consult with colleagues or domain experts,
尝试新的策略得到反馈并进行反思
try out new strategies,solicit feedback and reflect.
顶尖的象棋选手
The best chess players spend a lot
并没有花大量时间下象棋
of time not playing games of chess,
也就是执行区
which would be their performance zone,
而是预测和分析大师的棋路
but trying to predict the moves grand masters made and analyzing them.
我们每个人可能都有这样的经历用键盘打字
Each of us has probably spentmany, many, many hours
打了很久很久的字速度却毫无进展
typing on a computer without getting faster,
但如果我们每天花十到二十分钟
but if we spent 10 to 20 minutes each day
全身心投入 用比目前水平的快百分之十到百分之二十的速度去打字
fully concentratingon typing 10 to 20 percent faster
我们打字速度就会更快
than our current reliable speed, we would get faster,
尤其是如果我们还能注意到我们所犯的错误时
especially if we also identified what mistakes we’re making
练习那些打错的字
and practiced typing those words.
这就是刻意练习
That’s deliberate practice.
我们生活有哪些其他方面也许是我们更在意的
In what other parts of our lives, perhaps that we care more about,
虽然我们非常努力 却没有太多改善
are we working hard but not improving much
就因为我们总处于执行区呢?
because we’re alwaysin the performance zone? Now,
我并不是说执行区没有意义
this is not to say that the performance zone has no value.
其实执行区意义重大
It very much does.
我的膝盖需要动手术时我没对医生说
When I needed a knee surgery,I didn’t tell the surgeon,
“随便看看 关注你不会的”
“Poke around in thereand focus on what you don’t know.”
(笑声)
(Laughter)
我们会从错误中吸取教训
“We’ll learn from your mistakes!”
当需要手术医生时
I looked for a surgeon who
我会找医术精湛的医生
I felt would do a good job,
我也希望她医术高明
and I wanted her to do a good job.
在执行区 我们做事
Being in the performance zone allows us to
可以竭尽所能尽善尽美
get things done as best as we can.
它还能给我们提供动力
It can also be motivating,
给予信息
and it provides us
当回到学习区的时候
with information to identify what to focus on next
使我们清晰地知道下一步该集中精力做什么
when we go back to the learning zone.
所以要想执行能力高效
So the way to high performance is to alternate
就需要在学习区和执行区不断地交替
between the learning zone and the performance zone,
学习区里有目的性的掌握技能
purposefully building our skillsin the learning zone,
然后在执行区运用那些技能
then applying those skillsin the performance zone.
当碧昂斯巡演时
When Beyoncé is on tour,
演唱会是她的执行区
during the concert,she’s in her performance zone,
但当她每晚回到酒店
but every night when shegets back to the hotel room,
她就立刻投入到自己的学习区
she goes right backinto her learning zone.
观看自己刚结束的演唱会视频
She watches a videoof the show that just ended.
寻找可以突破的空间
She identifies opportunitiesfor improvement,
无论是她本人 她的伴舞 还是她的摄像团队
for herself, her dancersand her camera staff.
第二天早上
And the next morning,
大家就会收到几页写着哪些需要调整的笔记
everyone receives pages of notes with what to adjust,
然后利用下一场演唱会之前的时间改进
which they then work on during the day before the next performance.
不断增加的能力 成螺旋式上升
It’s a spiral to ever-increasing capabilities,
但我们要知道何时需要学习
but we need to know when we seek to learn,
何时需要实践
and when we seek to perform,
在我们想两者兼顾时
and while we wantto spend time doing both,
在学习区花的时间越多
the more time we spendin the learning zone,
提升也就越大
the more we’ll improve.
那我们如何在学习区花更多的时间呢?
So how can we spendmore time in the learning zone? First,
首先 我们必须相信同时明白
we must believe and understand
我们是可以提升自己的我们称为成长型思维模式
that we can improve, what we call a growth mindset. Second,
其次 我们必须在特定的技能上提升
we must wantto improve at that particular skill.
我们必须有在意的目标
There has to be a purpose we care about,
因为提升需要时间和精力
because it takes time and effort. Third,
第三 我们必须清楚知道如何改进
we must have an ideaabout how to improve,
以及我们能什么 才能提高
what we can do to improve,
而不是像我在青少年时练吉他一样
not how I used to practice the guitar as a teenager,
反复弹奏同一首歌
performing songs over and over again,
而是刻意去练习
but doing deliberate practice.
第四 我们必须要在低风险的情况下
And fourth, we must bein a low-stakes situation,
因为如果错误在所难免
because if mistakes are to be expected,
那么犯错的后果就不是灾难性的
then the consequence of making themmust not be catastrophic,
或有举足轻重的影响
or even very significant.
走钢丝的人练习新动作时下面都有垫子
A tightrope walker doesn’t practicenew tricks without a net underneath,
运动员
and an athlete wouldn’t set
也不会在决赛期间
out to first try a new move
才尝试新动作
during a championship match.
在生活中
One reason that
我们花了大量时间在执行区的原因
in our lives we spend so much time in the performance zone
是因为我们所处的环境通常具有没必要的高风险
is that our environmentsoften are, unnecessarily, high stakes.
我们为对方制造社交难题
We create social risks for one another,
甚至在以学习为宗旨的学校里
even in schools which are supposedto be all about learning,
我不是指标准化的考试
and I’m not talkingabout standardized tests.
我的意思是 每时每刻
I mean that every minute of every day,
从小学到大学
many students in elementaryschools through colleges
很多学生都觉得 如果他们犯了错 别人就会轻视自己
feel that if they make a mistake, others will think less of them.
难怪他们总感到压力
No wonder they’re always stressed out and
而不是因为学习而采取必要的风险
not taking the risks necessary for learning.
但他们知道错误是不可取的
But they learnthat mistakes are undesirable
当老师和家长无意地
inadvertently when teachers or parents are
只希望听到正确答案
eager to hear just correct answers
排斥错误 而不是正确面对以及检验它们
and reject mistakesrather than welcome and examine them
从错误中吸取教训
to learn from them,
或者当我们都寻求狭隘的回应而不是鼓励更多 我们大家都可
or when we look for narrow responses rather than encourage more exploratory thinking
从中受益的开拓性思考
that we can all learn from.
当所有家庭作业或学生任务
When all homework or student work
都有分数或成绩
has a number or a letter on it,
并做为最后总成绩的依据
and counts towards a final grade,
而不是把分数用在练习 错误 反馈与改正上
rather than being used for practice, mistakes, feedback and revision,
我们在告诉大家 学校是执行区
we send the messagethat school is a performance zone.
这同样适用于 我们的工作场所
The same is true in our workplaces.
我咨询的公司中
In the companies I consult with,
完美主义执行力文化随处可见
I often see flawless execution cultures
领导鼓励大家工作尽善尽美
which leaders fosterto encourage great work.
却导致员工止步不前
But that leads employeesto stay within what they know
也没有尝试新的事物
and not try new things,
公司一直处于创新难和提升难的困境中
so companies struggle to innovate and improve,
公司当然会落后于其他公司
and they fall behind.
我们可以为他们成长提供更多空间
We can create more spaces for growth
一对一和员工谈话
by starting conversations with one another
了解他们什么时候想处于哪一个区
about when we want to be in each zone.
想提升的板块是什么 以及如何提升
What do we want to get better at and how?
什么时候执行 并能减少失误
And when do we wantto execute and minimize mistakes?
如此一来 我们清楚地知道成功是什么
That way, we gain clarityabout what success is, when,
在对的时间 用对的方式相互支持
and how to best support one another.
但如果我们发现自己处于长期高风险时
But what if we find ourselvesin a chronic high-stakes setting
我们会感到无法与人交谈
and we feel we can’tstart those conversations yet?
作为个体 我们仍然可以做以下三件事
Then here are three things that we can still do as individuals. First,
第一 我们仍然可以在高风险的海洋建立低风险的岛屿
we can create low-stakes islandsin an otherwise high-stakes sea.
总有一些错误的后果并不严重
These are spaces where mistakeshave little consequence.
例如 我可以找 能与之交流思想 或进行不必掩饰自己脆弱面的谈话
For example, we might finda mentor or a trusted colleague
的导师或可信的同事
with whom we can exchange ideasor have vulnerable conversations
甚至角色扮演
or even role-play.
我们还可以随着项目进程举行以反馈为目标的会议
Or we can ask for feedback-orientedmeetings as projects progress.
或利用业余时间阅读
Or we can set aside time to read
看视频 报网课
or watch videos or take online courses.
这是只是一些例子
Those are just some examples. Second,
第二 我们按要求实施和执行
we can executeand perform as we’re expected,
然后反思下次是否可以做得更好
but then reflect on whatwe could do better next time,
就像碧昂斯的做法我们可以仔细观察和效仿专家
like Beyoncé does, and we can observe and emulate experts.
这些观察 反思 修正的行为都在学习区
The observation, reflectionand adjustment is a learning zone.
最后 我们可以成为引路人
And finally, we can lead
帮助他人降低风险
and lower the stakes
和他们分享我们想提升的技能
for others by sharing what we want to get better at,
分享我们如何剖析自己的无知
by asking questionsabout what we don’t know,
分享如何获得反馈 常犯错误有哪些
by soliciting feedbackand by sharing our mistakes
以及我们从错误中获得的收获
and what we’ve learned from them,
如此大家也会放心地去尝试
so that others can feel safe to do the same.
真正的自信源于不断地效仿与学习
Real confidence is aboutmodeling ongoing learning.
如果 我们不断花大量时间不停地做事
What if, instead of spendingour lives doing, doing, doing, performing,
不停地执行
performing, performing,
而是花更多时间 去探索 去请教
we spent more time exploring, asking,
去倾听 去尝试 去沉思 去努力 去改变自己
listening, experimenting, reflecting, striving and becoming?
如果我们每个人
What if we each always had something
都有需要提升的技能
we were working to improve?
如果我们建更多低风险的岛屿
What if we created more low-stakes islands
和水源
and waters?
如果我们能更清晰地认识自己
And what if we got clear,
认识队友
within ourselves and with our teammates,
何时该学习
about when we seek to learn
何时该实践
and when we seek to perform,
这样我们的付出就会开花结果
so that our effortscan become more consequential,
就会有源源不断的提升
our improvement never-ending
最后从最好到更好
and our best even better
谢谢大家
Thank you.
(掌声)
(Applause)

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

生活中大多数人都只是在工作,不断重复却没有提升,这个视频会让你茅塞顿开。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Elena

审核员

审核员@XG

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KaiwGb0csas

相关推荐