ADM-201 dump PMP dumps pdf SSCP exam materials CBAP exam sample questions

什么时候我们才可以喝上安全的水? – 译学馆
未登陆,请登陆后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

什么时候我们才可以喝上安全的水?

When is water safe to drink? - Mia Nacamulli

看看这个玻璃杯里的水
Take a look at the water in this glass.
它能提神 保湿 并且对你的生命很重要
Refreshing, hydrating, and invaluable to your survival.
但是在你小抿一口前
Before you take a sip, though,
你怎么知道水里没有致病的微生物和污染物呢?
how do you know that the water inside is freefrom disease-causing organisms and pollutants?
全球约有十分之一的人不能确定
One out of ten people in the world can’t actually be sure
他们的饮用水是干净安全的
that their water is clean and safe to drink.
为什么呢?
Why is that?
卫生设施不完善
Inadequate sanitation,
饮用水源保护不力
poor protection of drinking water sources,
及不注意卫生
and improper hygiene
经常导致水变为污水或者被粪便污染
often lead to sewage and feces-contaminated water.
就成了危险的细菌 病毒和寄生虫
That’s the ideal breeding ground
理想的滋生地
for dangerous bacteria, viruses and parasites.
而且这些病原体的影响是惊人的
And the effects of these pathogens are staggering.
不安全的水引起的腹泻病
Diarrheal disease from unsafe water is one of the leading causes of death
是全球五岁以下儿童死亡的主要原因之一
around the world for children under five.
根据联合国2010年的报告
And according to a U.N. report from 2010,
微生物水性疾病一年致死人数比战争造成的还多
microbial water-borne illnesses killed more people per year than war.
但是恰当的处理程序可以解决这些威胁
Proper treatment processes, though, can address these threats.
这些程序通常有三部分:
They usually have three parts:
沉淀
sedimentation,
过滤
filtration,
和消毒
and disinfection.
一旦水被收集到处理设备中
Once water has been collected in a treatment facility,
水的净化就开始了
it’s ready for cleaning.
第一步 沉淀 只需花时间
The first step, sedimentation, just takes time.
让水保持平静 较重的颗粒会沉到底部
The water sits undisturbed, allowing heavier particles to sink to the bottom.
但是 粒子实在是太小了
Often, though, particles are just too small
仅仅通过沉淀不能把它们完全清除
to be removed by sedimentation alone
还需要进行过滤
and need to be filtered.
重力使水向下流 通过能够
Gravity pulls the water downward through layers of sand
在气孔处收集剩余颗粒的沙层
that catch leftover particles in their pores,
为水的最终处理
prepping the water for its final treatment,
即消毒做准备
a dose of disinfectant.
主要由氯和臭氧组成的化学物
Chemicals, primarily forms of chlorine and ozone,
被混入水中以消灭所有病原体
are mixed in to kill off any pathogens
并给管道和蓄水系统消毒
and to disinfect pipes and storage systems.
氯能高效地除去水中微生物
Chlorine is highly effective in destroying water’s living organisms,
但是它的使用受政府管制
but its use remains government-regulated
因为它有潜在的化学副作用
because it has potentially harmful chemical byproducts.
如果在消毒过程中 氯平衡被打破
And if an imbalance of chlorine occurs during the disinfection process,
就可能会引发其它的化学反应
it can trigger other chemical reactions.
例如氯的副产物
For example, levels of chlorine byproducts,
像三卤甲烷 它的猛增可能导致管道腐蚀
like trihalomethanes, could skyrocket, leading to pipe corrosion
从而产生铁 铜和铅 并混到饮用水中
and the release of iron, copper, and lead into drinking water.
这些以及其他原因导致的水污染
Water contamination from these and other sources
包括浸出
including leaching,
化学物泄露
chemical spills,
以及径流等原因
and runoffs,
都可能导致慢性病
has been linked to long-term health effects,
比如癌症
like cancer,
心血管和神经系统疾病
cardiovascular and neurological diseases,
以及流产
and miscarriage.
不幸的是 分析受化学污染的水
Unfortunately, analyzing the exact risks
的确切危害是很难的
of chemically contaminated water is difficult.
因此 当我们清楚消毒剂是通过
So while it’s clear that disinfectants make us safer
消灭致病菌来使我们更安全时
by removing disease-causing pathogens,
专家尚未确定
experts have yet to determine the full scope
饮用水中的化学混合物
of how the chemical cocktail in our drinking water
对人类健康的全部可能影响
really impacts human health.
因此 如何判断你得到的水
So how can you tell whether the water you have access to,
不管是自来水还是其他水
whether from a tap or otherwise,
是否可以饮用呢?
is drinkable?
首先 浑浊度太大
Firstly, too much turbidity,
含有微量有机化合物
trace organic compounds,
或高密度的重金属 如砷 铬 铅
or high-density heavy metals like arsenic, chromium, or lead,
那么这水不宜饮用
mean that the water is unsuitable for consumption.
许多像铅或砷这样的污染物
A lot of contaminants, like lead or arsenic,
不经测试是难以发现的
won’t be obvious without tests,
但某些迹象 如絮状沉淀
but some clues, like cloudiness,
显深褐色或黄色
brown or yellow coloration,
有难闻的气味
a foul odor,
或过重的氯气味
or an excessive chlorine smell
暗示着这可能需要进一步调查
can indicate they need to investigate further.
水检设备可以进一步确认
Water testing kits can go a step further
许多不同的污染物和化学物质的存在
and confirm the presence of many different contaminants and chemicals.
对于多种类型的污染
With many types of contamination,
有很多在用水的地方而不是水源附近处理水的方法
there are ways of treating water where it’s used instead of close to its source.
实际上 使用点处理法的使用已有几千年了
Point-of-use treatment has actually been around for thousands of years.
古埃及人利用太阳热度蒸发掉许多有机污染物
Ancient Egyptians boiled away many organic contaminants with the sun’s heat.
在古希腊 希波克拉底设计了一个袋子
And in Ancient Greece, Hippocrates designed a bag
它能把水中有害气味沉积物包住
that trapped bad tasting sediments from water.
今天 使用点处理法通常通过离子化
Today, point-of-use processes usually involve ionization
来减少矿物质成分
to lower mineral content.
也用一种叫做活性炭的多孔材料
They also use adsorption filtration,
来对杂质进行吸附过滤
where a porous material called activated carbon
它能滤去水中的污染物和化学副产品
strains the water to remove contaminants and chemical byproducts.
然而这并不是一个有效且长远的办法
While it’s not always an effective long-term solution,
使用点处理设备可携带 易安装 可调节
point-of-use treatment is portable, easy to install, and adaptable.
而在一些没有大规模系统
And in regions where large-scale systems are unavailable,
或者污水已经进一步扩散的地区
or where water has been contaminated further along its journey,
这些小规模系统可能决定着人们的生死
these systems can mean the difference between life and death.
干净的水一直都很宝贵稀缺
Clean water remains a precious and often scarce commodity.
近8亿的人仍没法定期获取干净水
There are nearly 800 million of us who still don’t have regular access to it.
好消息是 无论是大规模还是小规模的
The good news is that continued developments in water treatment,
污水治理的不断发展
both on a large and small scale,
都能缓解许多不安全的情况
can alleviate a lot of unsafe conditions.
在需要时 使用恰当的净水系统
Implementing proper systems where they’re needed
并密切关注已安装的系统
and paying careful attention to the ones already in place
将满足我们人类最基本的需求之一
will fulfill one of the most basic of our human needs.

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

怎样才可以安全地饮用水呢?来了解一下水的处理过程:沉淀-过滤-消毒。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Aria

审核员

审核员T

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G244Q4AGJ7U

相关推荐