未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

曾经的的巨型蘑菇林

When Fungus Grew to the Size of Trees

Forests of giant mushroom-the size of trees,
树木般高大的 巨型蘑菇状森林
the common place in science fiction and fantasy.
是科幻作品中的常见场景
But there was once a time when they were reality.
但曾有段时间 它们真实存在过
and fungus did grow to the heights of small trees.
菌类确实曾像小树那么高
Over 360 million years ago,
三亿六千多万年前
a fungus named Prototaxites
一种名为原杉藻的菌类
towered above its surroundings.
远远高出它周围的环境
At this point in history,
在这一历史时期
during the early Devonian period,
即泥盆纪早期
trees did not exist yet
树木尚不存在
let alone huge forests.
更别说巨型森林了
And the tallest plants on land
那时陆地上最高的植物
could grow no higher than a man’s waist,
也高不过人的腰部
making this giant fungus
这使得这种巨型蘑菇
the tallest living thing on land.
成了陆地上最高的生物
And so in a role reversal,
这样一种颠倒
the mushroom towered above the other plants,
巨型蘑菇高出其他植物许多
creating an ecosystem so otherworldly
创造了一种奇特的生态系统
it would fit perfectly in a science fiction story.
完美契合了科幻小说的情景
Moth Light Media
飞蛾灯媒体
The discovery of Prototaxites dates all way back to 1843,
发现原杉藻的时间可以追溯到1843年
but when it was discovered
但它被发现时
no one had any idea
没人想到
the fossils they were looking at
他们正观察的化石
were actually of a giant prehistoric fungus.
实则是一种巨型的史前菌类
And it’s true identity evaded discovery for over a century
它的真实身份长达一个多世纪未被发现
with the only really being found out in the 2000s.
直到21世纪
This was because it shared qualities
这是因为 它同时具有
from several different organism groups.
几种不同有机体的特质
From a distance,
从远处看
it’s meter-wide trunk made it look like the base of tree.
一米宽的枝干使它看起来像树的底部
But under closer inspection,
但近距离观察
his body was made up of small tubes that looked a lot like hyphae
其主干由微小的菌丝一样的管状物构成
which are filaments that make up the body of a fungus.
而菌丝是构成菌类主体的纤维
The first attempts to classify the new fossils
最初尝试将这些新化石归类时
concluded that it was a peculiar ancient conifer,
人们曾断定它是一种奇特的远古针叶树
the fossilized while rotting,
它的石化始于腐烂时
and so was covered in fungus,
因此被菌类覆盖
which would explain why it has features from both groups.
这能解释它为何有两个有机体组的特征
However, this theory was quickly swept aside
然而 这个理论很快被推翻
and it was later assumed that Prototaxites were large marine algae.
后来科学家们假设原杉藻是一种大型海藻
And despite the overwhelming evidence that the organism grew on land,
尽管有压倒性证据证明它是陆生的
this version of Prototaxites as a marine plant
但长达一个多世纪的时间里
was the most popular view of the large tree fugues
原杉藻是海洋植物的说法
for over a century.
是关于这一大型树状菌类最流行的观点
Until as recently as 2001,
直到2001年
when the specimens were re-examined,
化石标本被再次查验时
and based on its internal structure,
基于其内部结构
it was finally hypothesize that
它最终被假定为
it may actually be a giant ancient fungus,
一种巨型的远古菌类
although there was no conclusive proof.
尽管尚无确切证据证明这一点
However, with modern technology,
但是 利用现代科技
there was now a way that this could be found out.
现在已经有办法证明了
By studying their carbon isotopes,
通过研究它们的碳同位素
specifically the ratios between two common forms of carbon,
具体就是两种常见形式的碳
carbon 12 and carbon 13.
碳十二和碳十三的比例
All plants absorb in metabolized
植物从空气中吸收
carbon dioxide from the air,
用于代谢的二氧化碳
which means that their carbon ratios tend to be
这意味着它们的碳同位素比率
pretty consistent with the atmosphere of which they live in.
往往与它们的生活环境非常一致
And because all the plants found across a given ecosystem
因为给定生态系统中发现的所有植物
are getting their carbon from the same source,
获取碳的来源是相同的
all of their ratios will be consistent with each other as well.
因此它们的碳同位素比率也会彼此一致
However, organisms that get their carbon from their food,
然而 从食物中获取碳的生物 比如动物
like animals tend to look like whatever they eat,
往往会和它们吃的食物相像
and so their ratios can vary wildly
因此它们的碳同位素比率
depending on their diet.
基本取决于其饮食
A long time ago, fungus were classified as plants.
很久以前 菌类被归为植物
However, it is now known
然而现在
they are actually more closely related to animals,
我们知道了它们其实更接近动物
and consume their food rather than making it for themselves like animals.
它们像动物一样是异养生物而非自养生物
even though they chemically absorb their food rather than mechanically digested.
即使它们是腐生生物而非捕食者
This still means that they will have carbon isotope ratios
这仍意味着 它们的碳同位素比率
that will vary depending on the food they are eating.
根据所吃的食物而有所变化
The carbon of Prototaxites were studied
科学家们研究了原杉藻的碳同位素比率
and they were found to vary wildly
发现它们和同地域的菌类
even among fungus discovered from the same region,
有很大差异
which showed the Prototaxites
这表明 原杉藻
must have got some of his food from its surroundings
一定从周围的环境中获取了食物
and not from the air, like a plant would have.
而非和植物一样从空气中获取养分
Therefore must have been a fungus.
因此 它们一定是菌类
Their body didn’t have the classic mushroom shape of many modern fungus,
它们不具有许多现代菌类典型的蘑菇形状
And instead, their featureless tree-trunk-like body
相反 它们毫无特色的树干状主干
would’ve towered 6 meters off of the ground on average.
平均高出地面6米
With one very large specimen almost reaching 9 meters.
其中一个大型原杉藻标本的高度接近9米
So compared with modern trees this isn’t that tall.
虽然和现代树木相比它们不算高
But for the time in the Devonian period
但在泥盆纪时期
between 420 to 360 million years ago,
距今四亿二千万年到三亿六千万年前
they were the largest organisms on land.
它们是陆上最大的生物
The Devonian was a transitional period
泥盆纪是一个
when land dwelling creatures and plants
动植物在陆地上栖息的过渡时期
had only very recently descended from aquatic ancestors.
当时 它们刚从水生祖先那里进化来不久
And it was still a whole thing
解决陆地生活的问题
to solve the problems of living on land.
仍是一件重要的事
This meant that the environment that surrounded these large fungus
这意味着 这些大型菌类周围的环境
would have still been sparsely populated.
生物栖息的密度仍然很低
And the plants that did inhabit the region
栖息在这个地区的植物
would have been primitive like mosses, lichen, liverworts
应该是藓类 地衣 苔类等远古植物
and a strange new extinct group of plants called Cooksonia.
和名为库克逊蕨的奇特的新灭绝的植物群
They could grow no larger than a meter at all.
它们长不过一米高
So the Devonian landscape would have been incredibly strange,
所以泥盆纪的风景非常奇怪
but also raises an important question.
但也引出了一个重要问题
Modern day forests contain a large amount of large animals
现代森林里有许多大型动物
and plant life to feed on,
和它们赖以为生的植物
and mushrooms that feed off of these environments
而以这些环境中养料为食的蘑菇
are much smaller in comparison.
和动物相比要小得多
So how was such a large fungus able to absorb enough food
生态系统中的其它生物都小得多时
if all the other organisms in its ecosystem was so much smaller.
大型菌类如何获取足够食物呢
In the majority of cases,
大多数情况下
the bit of a fungus that sticks out of the ground
从地面长出的部分菌类
is actually only the fruiting part
其实只是子实体
that is used to spread their spores,
被用来传播孢子
technically known as the sporophore.
其严格称谓是孢子体
And all of the eating is actually done underground
所有营养吸收其实在地下发生
in a network of roots known as mycelium
在名为菌丝体的根系网络中完成
that consume the energy from their environment.
这个结构会消耗其周围环境的能量
It would have been possible for Prototaxites
这使得原杉藻和普通菌类一样
to gather enough food as a normal fungus
可以仅仅通过一个
by just having a vast and far reaching network of roots under the ground.
深广的地下根系网络收集足够的养分
Some modern mushrooms like the honey mushroom,
一些现代蘑菇如蜜环菌
have incredibly far reaching roots.
有非常广的根系
In fact one member of the species in Oregon
事实上 俄勒冈州的
measures almost 2½ miles across.
一种蜜环菌的根系长达二英里半
This means they are able to absorb in
这意味着 它们能吸收
a massive amount of nutrients in food
食物中大量的营养物质
that could support large structures like Prototaxites.
足够供给原杉藻这样的庞然大物
However, a lot of these modern giant fugues
然而 许多现代巨型菌类
tend to still have small fruiting bodies.
往往只有很小的子实体
So why did Prototaxites grow to be so tall?
为什么原杉藻要长得这么高?
Well, as the sporophore is used to spread spores,
因为孢子体是用来传播孢子的
the taller it is, the further the spores will spread.
它长得越高 孢子就会传播得越远
And the greater chance they will have been caught in the wind
它们被风吹走的机会就越大
and spreading even further.
它们就能传播得更远
However, large structures take a long time to grow,
然而 这样的庞然大物需要很长时间长成
and a giant soft body fungus
巨大而柔软的菌类子实体
is a very easy target for large animals.
很容易成为大型动物的目标
During the Devonian period, like plants,
在泥盆纪时期
animals were also only just starting to conquer the land.
动植物也才刚开始征服这片土地
And at the time of Prototaxites,
在原杉藻生活的时期
the world was only occupied by small animals like velvet worms
世界上只有天鹅绒虫这样的小型动物
and some arthropods like ancient scorpions and millipedes.
和远古蝎子 千足虫这样的节肢动物
Although there may have been some semi-aquatic amphibian ancestors
虽然可能有一些半水生两栖动物的祖先
that occasionally waddled across the land,
偶尔晃悠着穿过这片土地
there were no permanent vertebrate land dwellers at this time
但这时还没有真正的陆生脊椎动物
and no permanent land residents larger than your hand.
也没有大过手掌的真正的陆生生物
Because the Devonian had no large animals,
正因为泥盆纪没有大型动物
Prototaxites had the luxury of being able to use
原杉藻才能够奢侈地
a lot of resources into getting very large.
利用许多资源来长得很大
However in the case of modern fungus,
至于现代菌类
because they are faced with the danger of being eaten
因为它们面临着被大型动物
by a large animal.
吃掉的危险
They have put their eggs in multiple baskets.
所以它们都有两手准备
This may also be the reason why Prototaxites went to extinct.
这也许正是原杉藻灭绝的原因
Some fossils have been found with mazes of holes through them,
科学家们发现一些化石里有迷宫般的孔洞
with fungus regrowing into the open spaces and
菌类在其中的开阔空间里再生
many scientists believe that
许多科学家认为
these holes were made by Devonian era creatures,
这些洞由泥盆纪时代的生物制造
burrowing into these large structures for food or shelter.
它们为食物或住所挖掘了这些庞大构造
Prototaxites enjoyed a sparsely populated planet for a long time,
原杉藻长期享受着生物稀少的生活
but this would change by the end of the Devonian
但泥盆纪晚期 这种情况改变了
when animals did start to get larger
这时 动物开始变大
as single trees turned into forests
零散的树木变成了森林
and the ecosystem started to get more complex
生态系统开始变得更加复杂
and Prototaxites may have been ill equipped for this new world
而原杉藻没能适应这个新世界
and so went extinct at the end of the Devonian period about 360 million years ago.
所以它们在三亿六千万年前的泥盆纪晚期灭绝了
Some researchers have believed that
一些研究者认为
the reason that Prototaxites was able to get so large
原杉藻能长得这么大的原因
was actually because they were able to photosynthesize
实际上是为了进行光合作用
and wanting no more fungus but instead a lichen.
它不再需要真菌 而需要地衣
Lichen are fungus, however they get all or some of their energy
地衣是菌类 但它们通过与体内藻类细胞的共生关系
through a symbiotic relationship with algae cells contained within their body.
来获取全部或部分能量
The algae photosynthesize and expel waste
藻类进行光合作用 并排出
that the fungus feeds on,
菌类赖以生存的废物
meaning that lichen are capable of a sort of quasi-photosynthesis.
这意味着 地衣具有一种准光合作用的能力
So they may have been able to photosynthesise,
所以它们也许能进行光合作用
and so in a world predating trees
所以在树木出现以前
they may have filled a similar niche to a tree,
它们可能填补了树的位置
and would explain how
这也就可以解释
they were able to survive in an environment
它们是如何在 以现今标准来看
that was very barren by today’s standards.
非常贫瘠的环境中存活的了
However for the time being,
然而目前
that doesn’t seem to be a reliable way
这似乎不是查明这些巨型菌类
of finding out if these giant fungus were lichens.
是否是地衣的可靠办法
A more research will be needed to find out.
要想找出真相 还需要更多研究
So the ancient mega fungus went extinct
因此 随着泥盆纪早期奇特陆生系统
as the bizarre early land ecosystems of the Devonian
被石岩纪更复杂的森林取代
was swept away for the more complex forests of the Carboniferous.
古代的巨型真菌灭绝了
For Prototaxites and the strange ecosystem that it belonged to
原杉藻和它所属的奇特的生态系统表明
shows how the ancient earth can sometimes be stranger than fiction.
远古地球有时会比小说更加不同寻常
Thank you for watching!
感谢观看!
A big thank you to all my patron supporters,
非常感谢所有支持我的赞助人
especially the large contributors that are listed here.
尤其是这里列出的突出贡献者
If you like content like this,
如果你喜欢这样的内容
then consider becoming a patron as well.
就请你也考虑加入他们

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

科幻作品中常常出现的巨型蘑菇林居然真实存在于远古的泥盆纪时期,它们到底属于植物还是菌类,它们为何拥有这样庞大的枝干,又是如何灭绝的?让我们一起探究一下吧!

听录译者

Diecisiete

翻译译者

成奚

审核员

审核员VS

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v3ZJdgXV4fk

相关推荐