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最高建筑有多高?

What's the Tallest Thing We Can Possibly Build?

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12000年前
12,000 years ago in the hills
现在的土耳其山上
of Modern-day turkey our ancient ancestors built
我们的祖先建造了据说是世上最古老的庙宇
what is to our knowledge the oldest temple in the world.
人类一直都想看看
It has always been a human desire to
自己做建之物能离天有多近
see how far up into the sky their creations can reach
古人经常凝视夜空
ancient humans used to gaze up at the night sky
梦想着站在人造高楼上
and dream about reaching the stars
能够手摘星辰
with their buildings.
人类的天性是
It is only natural for humanity to push further
越来越有进步 建的楼比前代高
than ever before and to build taller and taller than anybody before them.
但是最终 我们的建筑物
But surely there must be a limit to
再高也有个限度 是不是?
how tall we can eventually build something, right?
理论上 我们能建造的最高的建筑物到底是什么呢?
What is actually the tallest thing that we could theoretically ever build?
我们先举个例子感受一下
To begin with a sense of scale.
这是一层楼的标准高度
This is a standard height for a one-story family
距离地面4.5米高
home about four and a half meters tall above
拔地而起128米的就是
the ground moving up from there at 128 meters high
这座世界上最高的雕像
is the tallest statue in the world a statue,
以至于你从最上面跳下来
so tall that if you jumped from the top
5.5秒之后
of its head it would take you five
才能落到地面上
and a half seconds before hitting the ground.
然后再高一点的建筑
Just a bit higher,
就是高达139米的世界上最高的过山车
at 139 meters is the tallest roller coaster in the world.
但是和巍峨的吉萨金字塔相比 它就差远了
But that’s not quite as high up as the Great Pyramid
该金字塔建立于很久以前的
of Giza which was built a very long time ago in
公元前2570年
2570 BC.
落成后
Once completed
它就成为那个时代人类所能建造的最高建筑物
it was by far the tallest thing that we humans had ever built
该记录一直保持了3881年
and it maintained that record for an
简直令人难以置信
unbelievable three thousand eight hundred Eighty-one years
直到1311年它才被林肯大教堂打败
until it was finally beaten in the year thirteen eleven
英国的林肯大教堂直插云霄
in England the Lincoln cathedral reached a soaring height of
以160米的高度
160 meters into the sky and that remained the tallest
成为当时人类的最高建筑
thing that humans had ever achieved
直到1884年
until kind of recently in 1884
华盛顿特区的华盛顿纪念碑
when the Washington monument in Washington DC
以169米成为世界最高
finally surpassed its height at 169 meters.
但当今世界最高的摩天轮
The tallest ferris wheel in the world currently
基本上和这个纪念碑的高度差不多
is roughly the same height as this Monument,
所以很明显华盛顿纪念碑并不能
so the monument clearly didn’t
一直保持第一高的纪录
remain the tallest structure for very long.
埃菲尔铁塔远出其上
The Eiffel tower surpassed it quickly
该塔距离地面301米高
and was 301 meters high above the ground which
完全睥睨人类之前建造的其它建筑物
absolutely dwarfed everything that humans had ever built before it.
可以说埃菲尔铁塔打开了潘多拉魔盒
The Eiffel tower Kind of opened up Pandora’s box though
它告诉我们如何尽可能地
in terms of how tall we could possibly
提高建筑物的高度
build something with the advent of wrought iron
以熟铁和钢为材料
and steel the height
我们的建筑物高度可以更高
of our structures could get much greater.
然而克莱斯勒大厦
The Chrysler building at
最终以319米的高度
319 meters tall finally unseated the Eiffel tower
刷新了由埃菲尔铁塔保持41年的记录
after 41 years of holding the record
但是就在这座大厦完工的第二年
But the very next year after it was completed
帝国大厦以448米的高度
the Empire state building stole the crown at a
夺取了最高建筑的桂冠
massive height of 448 meters.
但这个记录也并没有保持多久
But even this record wouldn’t last for very long
因为1963年
because starting in 1963,
人类开始建造一座对当时来说史上最高的建筑
the tallest thing ever built by humanity would
准确的来说 这是一座电视塔
actually be a TV mast.
这座当时的最高建筑就是
The tallest of these ever built was the
华沙无线电塔
Warsaw radio tower
它拔地而起
which ascended to a
竟然有令人震惊的646米高
staggering height of 646 meters.
1991年 它倒塌了
It collapsed in 1991
直到最近的2008年 它的高度才被超越
but its height was never surpassed until very recently in 2008.
在揭晓目前最高的人造建筑物之前
To prepare for the scale of the tallest thing ever built by humans so far
我要先介绍一下这个图上的
I’m going to include several other very
其它几个很高也很有名气的建筑
tall and recognizable buildings onto this graph first.
但是还有一个建筑物比这几个都高
But by far taller than any
它就是迪拜的哈利法塔
of them is the Burj Khalifa in Dubai
这座摩天大楼有830米高
this Monster Building is 830 meters tall
从下到上
it takes two thousand nine hundred and
总共有2909个台阶
nine steps to walk up from the ground floor to the top.
或者你乘电梯上去 要花两分四十秒
Or you can take an elevator ride that takes two minutes and 40 seconds.
如果你从顶部以某种方式跌落至地面
If you jump from the top and somehow hits the ground
并且不撞到建筑的其它部分
without hitting any part of the building
跌完全程将花费你20秒的时间
it would take you 20 seconds to fall the entire distance.
请着手将记时器设为20秒
Go ahead and start a timer at 20 seconds to
体会一下这个跌落距离到底有多漫长
understand how long of a fall that actually is.
但是哈利法塔只是目前已落成的最高建筑
But the burj Khalifa is only how tall we have built
而非我们能建造的最高建筑
not how tall we possibly could build.
如果我们想的话
If we wanted to
想建多高就建多高
we could build something significantly higher
所以目前来看
so what’s preventing us
阻碍我们这样做的因素是什么?
from doing that right now?
理论上 根本没有什么
In theory there really isn’t a limits to how
能阻止我们要建多高
tall we could build something at all.
所以只要我们扩大建筑的地基
So long as we kept expanding the base of the structure
来支撑顶部增加的重量即可
to support the added weight on the top.
但地球是球面结构
Since the Earth is spherical
所以建筑物的地基的扩大程度是有限制的
there obviously is a limit to how much we could expand the base of the structure by.
所以以我们目前的科技和资源
So given our current technology and resources the
我们能建造的最高建筑物可能是
tallest thing we could possibly build right now is likely
X-Seed 4000
the X-Seed 4000
他们充分展望了这个最高建筑物的完整蓝图
the tallest structure ever fully envisioned with completed blueprints.
它直插云霄
It would soar to an insane height of four
达到令人疯狂的4000米
kilometres into the sky which would
使迪拜的哈利法塔也黯然失色
make the burj kalifa look puny in comparison.
它还会超过日本富士山的高度
And it would be even taller than Mount Fuji is
它甚至会达到珠穆朗玛峰
in Japan it would even reach about 45%
45%的高度
as high as mount Everest.
X-Seed 4000有2748辆日本丰田汽车
Or 2748 Toyota Corollas stacked on top of each other
彼此叠加起来那么高
the base of the tower would have to be six
该塔的地基将绵延6000米
kilometres across in order to support the
以支撑顶部的巨大重量
enormous weight on the top.
它基本上就像一座金属山
It would basically be a metal mountain capable of housing
足够容纳100万人口入住
over 1 million people inside of it,
它的庞大使其无论建在哪里
and it would be so gargantuan that it would likely
都可能影响到周边的天气模式
disrupt weather patterns around wherever it is built.
这座巨大的建筑
The cost of building such a titanic structure however
它的花费可能让你瞠目结舌
is perhaps as equal a ludicrous thought.
X-Seed4000的花费范围
Estimates range anywhere from
最低估计是4790亿美元
479 Billion dollars on the lower end up
最高估计是4万亿美元
to one point four trillion dollars on the higher end
这比整个俄罗斯的国民生产总值还要高
which is higher than the entire GDP of Russia.
这座X-Seed 4000真的有建成的可能性
The X-Seed 4000 is a true testament to possibility and
如果我们今天就决定动工
if we decided to build it today
那没什么能够阻止我们
there’s nothing that could stop us from finishing it tomorrow
在未来 我们可能建成更令人吃惊的建筑
In the future it may become possible to build even more outrageous
比如高出地面100,000千米的
structures like a space elevator 100,000 kilometers
太空升降舱
above the Earth’s surface.
但是目前还不可能啦
But since that currently isn’t possible
所以我现在把这个可能性放在视频末尾
I decided to leave it out of this video until now.
世界上目前还不存在某种
There doesn’t exist a material that we
足够坚固足够轻的材料
can produce enough of that is both strong
来让我们建造这个太空升降舱
and light enough to build a space elevator.
但如果未来我们的科技很发达
But if our technology advances enough in the future
理论上这座建筑可能被建成
it is theoretically possible to build
那它将成为世界上最高的建筑
which makes this probably the tallest
它的高度将前不见古人后不见来者
thing that could ever be built on Earth in humanity’s future.
从某些方面来说 这个国际空间站
For some perspective the international space station only orbits
围绕地球运转
around the Earth
它远离地表
this far away from the surface
这个100,000千米的太空升降舱
while the 100,000 kilometer space elevator would stretch
会一路延展到这里
all the way out to here.
由于地球的旋转
Due to the Earth’s rotation the top
相对于接近地表的一部分 太空升降舱顶部
of this elevator would be moving incredibly fast relative
会极快地旋转
to the surface.
这意味着舱上的人
This means that people on board would
会经历一定的时间膨胀
experience a modest amount of time dilation
这和宇航员在国际空间站上的经历
similar to what astronauts onboard the international space station
相似
experienced today.
以宇航员斯科特·凯利为例
Astronaut Scott Kelly for example spent an entire year
他在空间站上度过了整整一年
aboard the space station
结果由于时间膨胀
and as a result of time dilation
他返回地球后
he returned back to Earth
比他的双胞胎兄弟年轻了0.01秒
0.01 seconds younger than his identical twin brother.
这个数字看起来不大
It may not seem like much
但是由于他所在空间站的
but Scott kelly in effect time traveled a
运行速度
very small amount
斯科特·凯利度过的实际时间的确少了0.01秒
due to the speed that he was traveling at.
这些是我昨天花了闲暇的几分钟
I learned a lot about time travel and how it could be possible just
通过收听Blinkist
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包括非虚构书籍里的伟大思想
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视频概述

本视频介绍了各个时期的最高建筑。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

ABC

审核员

审核员 EM

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ToKKtcRg6YU

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