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维京船有什么特别之处? – 译学馆
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维京船有什么特别之处?

What's so special about Viking ships? - Jan Bill

“没有船的人是被束缚的” ——维京谚语
The Vikings came from the rugged, inhospitable north
维京人来自崎岖荒凉的北方
known today as Scandinavia.
也就是如今的斯堪的纳维亚
As the Roman Empire flourished further south,
随着罗马帝国进一步向南扩张
Scandinavians had small settlements, no central government, and no coinage.
斯堪的纳维亚人的聚居地很小 没有中央政府 没有货币
Yet by the 11th century, the Vikings had spread far from Scandinavia,
但到了11世纪 维京人已经远离斯堪的纳维亚半岛
gaining control of trade routes throughout Europe,
控制了整个欧洲的贸易路线
conquering kingdoms as far as Africa,
征服了远至非洲的王国
and even building outposts in North America.
甚至在北美建立前哨站
The secret to their success was their ships.
他们成功的秘诀在于他们的船
The formidable Viking longship
令人生畏的维京长船
had its origins in the humble dugout canoe, or log boat.
它起源于简易的独木舟 又称圆木船
For millennia, the inhabitants of Scandinavia had used these canoes for transportation.
数千年来 斯堪的纳维亚居民以这些独木舟为交通工具
Dense forests and tall mountains made overland travel difficult,
茂密的森林和高山使陆路旅行很困难
but long coastlines and numerous rivers, lakes, and fjords
但漫长的海岸线和众多的河流 湖泊和峡湾
provided a viable alternative.
提供了可行的替代方案
The first canoes were simply hollowed out logs rowed with paddles.
起先 独木舟只是中空的木头上配上船桨
Over time, they added planks to the log boat base
后来 他们用木板加固船底
using the clinker, or “lapstrake,” technique,
使用熟料或“盖瓦式叠板”技术
meaning the planks overlapped and were fastened to each other along their edges.
是指将木板重叠 并沿边缘一起固定
As the Roman Empire expanded north,
随着罗马帝国向北扩张
some Scandinavians served in their new neighbors’ armies—
一些斯堪的纳维亚人在这些新邻居的军队中服役
and brought home Roman maritime technology.
并带回了罗马的航海技术
The Mediterranean cultures at the heart of the Roman Empire
地中海文化是罗马帝国的核心
had large warships that controlled the sea,
它拥有称霸海洋的大型战舰
and cargo ships that transported goods along the waterways.
以及沿水路运输的货船
These ships were powered by sail and oars
这些船以帆和摇桨为动力
and relied on a strong skeleton of internal timbers
以坚固的内部骨架为支撑
fastened to the outer planks with copper, iron, and wood nails.
再用铜 铁和木钉固定内外木板
At first, Scandinavians incorporated this new technology
起初 斯堪的纳维亚人吸收了这一新技术
by replacing their loose paddles with anchored oars.
用有桨架的摇桨代替了划桨
This change hugely improved the crew’s efficiency,
这一改变极大地提高了船员效率
but also required stronger ships.
但也要求船更为坚固
So boat builders began to use iron nails for fasteners rather than sewing.
因此造船工开始用铁钉代替缝线进行固定
They abandoned the log boat base for a keel plank,
并用龙骨板代替了木船底
and the boats became higher and more seaworthy.
于是船体增高 更适合航行
But these early ships retained the concept of the original log boat:
但这些早期的船保留了原始木船的概念:
their strength depended on the outer shell of wood,
它们的坚固程度取决于木头外壳
not internal frames and beams.
而不是内部框架和梁
They were built as shells— thin-walled but strong,
船只建造地像贝壳一样壁薄但坚固
and much lighter than the Roman ships.
而且比罗马船轻得多
Competing chieftains quickly refined the new ships to be even more efficient.
酋长们竞相改进新船 让其更加高效
The lighter the boat, the more versatile it would be
船越轻 用途就越广
and the less investment of resources it would require—
制造成本也就越低
an essential advantage in a decentralized culture without large supplies of people.
这对于人口较少的分散性文化是重要优势
These ships still had no sails— sails were costly,
这些船仍然没有帆 因为帆很昂贵
and for now the rowed ships could meet their needs.
但配备多排桨的船暂时能满足他们的需求了
That changed after the Western Roman Empire collapsed in the 5th century.
5世纪西罗马帝国灭亡后 情况又有了改变
Western Europe took a heavy economic blow,
西欧遭受了沉重的经济打击
leveling the playing field a bit for the Scandinavians.
这也稍稍平衡了斯堪的纳维亚人的竞争环境
As the region revived, new and vigorous trade routes
随着该地区的复苏 充满活力的新贸易路线
extended into and through Scandinavia.
延伸至并覆盖了斯堪的纳维亚
The wealth that flowed along these routes
这些贸易路线所带来的财富
helped create a new, more prosperous and powerful class of Scandinavians,
帮助斯堪的纳维亚人造就了一个新的 更为富裕和强大的阶级
whose members competed constantly with each other over trade routes and territory.
这一阶级的成员竞相争夺贸易路线和领土
By the 8th century, a sailing ship began to make sense:
到了8世纪 帆船的出现在情理之中:
it could go further, faster, in search of newly available plunder.
它在寻找新的掠夺物时能航行得更远更快
With the addition of sails, the already light and speedy ships became nearly unbeatable.
加上船帆 本来就轻而快的战船变得几乎不可战胜
The Viking ship was born.
维京船就此诞生了
Viking longships could soon carry as many as 100 Vikings to battle.
维京长船能迅速装载多达100名维京人前去战斗
Fleets of them could land on open beaches,
他们的舰队可以在开阔的海滩登陆
penetrate deep into river systems, and be moved over land if need be.
深入河流系统 如有需要还可在陆地上移动
When not at war, the vessels were used to transport goods and make trade journeys.
和平时期 这些船是用于运输货物和贸易旅行的
There were smaller versions for fishing and local excursions,
小型船可供钓鱼和本地短途旅行
and larger adaptations for open sea voyages
还有可装载数十吨货物
capable of carrying tens of tons of cargo.
适合在开放海域航行的大型船
Thanks to their inventiveness in the face of difficult terrain and weak economies,
多亏了他们面对恶劣环境和惨淡经济的创造力
the Vikings sailed west,
维京人向西航行
settled the North Atlantic and explored the North American coast
在北大西洋定居并探索北美海岸
centuries before any other Europeans would set foot there.
这比其他涉足该地区的欧洲人要早几个世纪
Viking ships are the only relatively simple innovation
维京船是对人类历史产生重大影响的
that had a huge impact on human history
唯一一个相对简单的创造
Take for an example, gunpower,
比如说火药
which was originally invented to trying make humans immortal
原本是发明出来试图探寻人类永生之道的
or tea, a Chinese innovation that became so popular
还有中国的发明:茶 由于大受欢迎
that trade disputes sparked a war with the British empire
其产生的贸易纠纷引发了中国与大英帝国的战争

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维京船为何称霸海洋?如何制造?

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