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五大湖”大“在哪里? – 译学馆
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五大湖”大“在哪里?

What’s so great about the Great Lakes? - Cheri Dobbs and Jennifer Gabrys

[启点字幕组]
Light up the world
“五大湖”究竟大在哪儿呢
What’s so great about the Great Lakes?
它们作为美国的内陆湖为人们所熟知
They’re known as America’s inland seas.
北美洲的五大湖
The North American Great Lakes
休伦湖
Huron,
安大略湖
Ontario,
密歇根湖
Michigan,
伊利湖
Erie,
和苏比利尔湖
and Superior
大到有八个州与之相接壤
are so massive that they border eight states
蓄水量为二十三万亿立方米
and contain 23 quadrillion liters of water.
足可以把美国的各个州淹没
That’s enough to cover the land area of the contiguous United States
达三米深
three meters deep.
这么广阔的水体跨越森林
These vast bodies of water span forest,
草原
grassland,
和湿地栖息地
and wetland habitats,
为超过三千五百种生物提供了栖息之所
supporting a region that’s home to over 3,500 species.
但是这么广阔且独特的地质构造是怎样形成的呢
But how did such a vast and unique geological feature come to be?
这就要从一万多年前的冰川时代末期说起了
The story begins near the end of the last ice age over 10,000 years ago,
当时气候变暖
a time when the climate was warming
覆盖在地球表面的冰川慢慢开始融化
and the glaciers that cloaked the Earth’s surface began their slow retreat.
这些巨大的冰盖刨蚀了一系列的湖盆
These immense ice sheets carved out a series of basins.
冰雪融化 冰水充盈于湖盆中
Those basins filled with water as the ice began to melt,
这样就形成了世界上最大的淡水湖群
creating the world’s largest area of freshwater lakes.
岁月流逝 湖盆之间形成通道
Over time, channels developed between these basins,
湖水开始流入并不断交汇
and water began to flow in an ongoing exchange
时至今日 依然如故
that persists to this day.
事实上 今天 相互连通的五大湖
In fact, today, the interconnected Great Lakes
其蓄水量约占世界上地表淡水总量的百分之二十
contain almost 20% of the world’s supply of fresh surface water.
水的流域发源于苏比利尔湖遥远的北方
The water’s journey begins in the far north of Lake Superior,
这个最深 最冷 最清澈的湖泊
which is the deepest, coldest, and clearest of the lakes,
它的蓄水量占整个五大湖水系的一半
containing half the system’s water.
其最深处达406米
Lake Superior sinks to depths of 406 meters,
形成了独特且多样的生态系统 含80多种鱼类
creating a unique and diverse ecosystem that includes more that 80 fish species.
一滴水滴在流入密歇根湖或是休伦湖之前
A given drop of water spends on average 200 years in this lake
大概会在这个湖泊中待上两百年
before flowing into Lake Michigan or Lake Huron.
由麦基诺海峡相连的两个湖是最特别的两个
Linked by the Straits of Mackinac, these two lakes are technically one.
西面坐落着密歇根湖
To the west lies Lake Michigan,
其水域面积排在第三位
the third largest of the lakes by surface area.
水缓缓流到湖的尽头
Water slowly moves through its cul-de-sac shape
和世界上最大的淡水沙丘相汇
and encounters the world’s largest freshwater dunes,
湖中拥有很多的野生物种
many wildlife species,
和珍稀的珊瑚化石
and unique fossilized coral.
东面就是拥有最长湖岸线的休伦湖
To the east is Lake Huron, which has the longest shoreline.
它几乎没被污染过并拥有丰富的森林资源
It’s sparsely populated, but heavily forested,
甚至存在七千年前的树木化石
including 7,000-year-old petrified trees.
在它们下方 水不断从休伦湖向东南方向
Below them, water continues to flow southeastwards
流入伊利湖
from Lake Huron into Lake Erie.
它是五大湖中水温最暖 深度最浅的一个
This lake’s status as the warmest and shallowest of the five
这确保了包括数百万候鸟在内的大量动物生活其中
has ensured an abundance of animal life, including millions of migrating birds.
最终 湖水飞流直下 坠入
Finally, the water reaches its last stop by dramatically plunging
落差超过五十米的尼亚加拉大瀑布 到达最后一站
more than 50 meters down the thundering Niagara Falls
流入水域面积最小的安大略湖
into Lake Ontario, the smallest lake by surface area.
从这儿 经长途奔腾的湖水部分汇入圣劳伦斯河
>From there, some of this well-traveled water enters the St. Lawrence River,
最终流入太平洋
eventually reaching the Atlantic Ocean.
除此之外还形成了一幅自然奇观
In addition to being a natural wonder,
川流不息的五大湖使我们获益匪浅
the perpetually flowing Great Lakes bring us multiple benefits.
它们提供天然水过滤
They provide natural water filtration,
防洪
flood control,
及养分循环
and nutrients cycling.
五大湖的湖水穿行的距离超过三千二百千米
By moving water across more than 3,200 kilometers,
给超过四千万人提供了饮用水
the Great Lakes also provide drinking water for upward of 40 million people
而且每天为坐落在水系岸边的
and 212 billion liters a day for the industries and farms
工厂和牧场提供2120亿升水
that line their banks.
但是我们对五大湖水系的依赖也产生了负面影响
But our dependence on the system is having a range of negative impacts, too.
沿岸各栖息地退化的同时 人口也不断增长
The Great Lakes coastal habitats are being degraded and increasingly populated,
曾经原生态的湖水
exposing the once pristine waters
皆处于工业 城市及农业污染物的影响之下
to industrial, urban, and agricultural pollutants.
因为五大湖水系每年只有低于百分之一的湖水流出
Because less than 1% of the water leaves the Lake’s system annually,
这使得二十年前的污染物仍然潜伏在水中
decades-old pollutants still lurk in its waters.
从而形成一个既没有植物也没有动物的死亡之地
That creates dead zones in some regions where no plants or animals can survive.
人们也在无意间给湖水引进了
Humans have also inadvertently introduced
超过一百种具有侵略性质的外来物种
more than 100 non-native and invasive species into the lakes,
比如斑马贝 贻贝及七鳃鳗
such as zebra and quagga mussels, and sea lampreys
进而导致本土鱼类的数量急剧下降
that have decimated some indigenous fish populations.
从大的范围来讲 气候变化导致湖水变暖
On a larger scale, climate change is causing the waters to warm,
于是水平面下降 水生物的分布也发生改变
thus reducing water levels and changing the distribution of aquatic life.
幸运的是 最近几年 政府开始意识到
Luckily, in recent years, governments have started to recognize the immense value
自然资源的重要价值
of this natural resource.
美国和加拿大之间正在建立致力于降低污染的伙伴关系
Partnerships between the United States and Canada are underway to reduce pollution,
以保护沿岸栖息地
protect coastal habitats,
并终止侵略性物种的传播
and halt the spread of invasive species.
像保护重要人物一样保护五大湖
Protecting something as massive as the Great Lakes system
需要多方面的合作
will require the collaboration of many organizations,
如果我们能保护好这片内陆湖上的奇迹
but the effort is critical
效果则是不言而喻的
if we can preserve the wonder of this flowing inland sea.

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视频概述

上学那会儿就曾学过关于北美五大湖的知识。不过当时“孜孜焉唯进修是急”,如今与其不期而遇,盖温故知新耳。

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收集自网络

翻译译者

启点—飞雪群山

审核员

霜霜

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gBRcOLcEwF0

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