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正常的焦虑VS焦虑症

What's normal anxiety -- and what's an anxiety disorder? | Body Stuff with Dr. Jen Gunter

We live in a culture that doesn’t take
我们生活在一种
mental health issues seriously.
不重视心理健康问题的文化之中
There’s a lot of stigma.
心理问题会带来很多耻辱
Some people tell you to just suck it up, or get it together
有些人告诉你要忍耐 要振作起来
or to stop worrying, or that it’s all in your head.
要停止担忧 或者说这一切都是你的想象
But I’m here to tell you that anxiety disorders,
但我想告诉你们
they’re as real as diabetes.
焦虑症就像糖尿病一样是真实存在的
身体那些事儿
[Music playing]
[音乐播放中]
Hi again. It’s Dr. Jen
嗨 我是Jen医生
and I’ve noticed something with my patients.
我在我的病人身上注意到一些事情
They often describe to me some classic symptoms
他们经常向我描述一些焦虑症
of an anxiety disorder.
的典型症状
Constant worry, trouble sleeping,
比如 持续忧虑 失眠
tense muscles and struggle with concentrating.
肌肉紧张 难以集中注意力
But they aren’t getting treatment.
但他们没有得到治疗
There’s a lot of issues with mental-health care in this country.
我国的心理健康保健领域存在很多问题
Some people don’t have insurance that would cover it.
有些人的医保不涵盖心理健康治疗
Some have been dismissed or minimized in the past,
有些人的症状在过去被忽略或轻视
and don’t think seeking help will do any good.
不认为寻求帮助会有用
Some worry about the stigma and whether it could affect future jobs or relationships.
有些人担心这种耻辱会影响以后的工作和人际关系
But severe anxiety isn’t a moral or personal failing.
但严重的焦虑并不是一种道德缺陷或个人缺点
It’s a health problem
这是一个健康问题
just like strep throat or diabetes.
就像脓毒性咽喉炎或糖尿病一样
It needs to be treated with the same kind of seriousness.
我们需要以同样严肃的态度对待严重焦虑
Before we can talk about anxiety disorders,
在我们讨论焦虑症之前
let’s talk about anxiety itself.
让我们先来谈谈焦虑本身
Anxiety is the very real and normal emotion
焦虑是我们在压力大的时候
we feel in a stressful situation.
感受到的一种非常真实并且正常的情绪
It’s related to fear.
焦虑与恐惧有关
But while fear is a response to an immediate threat
但是恐惧是对突如其来的威胁的一种反应
that quickly subsides
这种情绪很快就会消退
anxiety is a response to more uncertain threats
而焦虑是对不确定因素更多
that tends to last much longer.
且持续时间更久的威胁做出的反应
It’s all part of the threat detection system,
焦虑是威胁感知系统的一部分
which all animals have to some degree
所有动物或多或少都有这种反应
to help protect us from predators.
来保护自己免受捕食者的伤害
Anxiety starts in the brain’s amygdala,
焦虑始于大脑的杏仁核
a pair of almond-sized nerve bundles
即一对杏仁大小的神经束
that alert other areas of the brain to be ready for defensive action.
警示大脑的其他区域准备好防御工作
Next, the hypothalamus relays the signal
接下来 下丘脑传递信号
setting off what we call the stress response in our body.
触发我们所说的 身体里的压力反应
Our muscles tense, our breathing and heart rate increase
我们的肌肉开始紧张 呼吸和心率会加快
and our blood pressure rises.
我们的血压升高
Areas in the brain stem kick in and
脑干的区域开始发挥作用
put you in a state of high alertness.
使你处于高度警觉的状态
This is the fight-or-flight response.
这就是战斗或逃跑反应
There are ways the fight-or-flight response
战斗或逃跑反应在某种程度上
is kept somewhat in check, with an area of higher-level thinking
是受一些方法控制的 所需的就是一个思维更高级的区域
called the ventromedial prefrontal cortex.
也就是腹内侧前额叶皮层
It works like this.
工作原理是这样的
If a person sees something they think is dangerous, like a tiger,
如果一个人看到了自认为危险的东西 比如老虎
that sends a signal to the amygdala
就会向杏仁核发送一个信号
saying “it’s time to run.”
告诉它“该跑了”
The ventromedial prefrontal cortex can say to the amygdala,
这时腹内侧前额叶皮层会对杏仁核说
“Hey, look.
“嘿 看呐
The tiger’s in a cage.
老虎在笼子里呢
You know what a cage is?
你知道笼子是什么吗?
They can’t escape from a cage.
老虎不可能从笼子里逃出来
It’s OK to calm down.”
所以冷静下来”
It’s a feedback loop that can help keep the response in check.
这就形成了一个有助于控制反应的反馈循环
The hippocampus is also involved.
海马体也参与其中
It provides context, saying things like
它提供了情境 比如
“Hey, we’ve seen tigers in cages before.
“嘿 我们以前见到过关在笼子里的老虎
We’re in a zoo.
我们现在在动物园里
You are extra safe.”
你现在特别安全”
With anxiety, these threat-detection systems
当焦虑产生时 本职为减少或抑制焦虑的
and mechanisms that reduce or inhibit them are functioning incorrectly
威胁感知系统无法正常运行
and cause us to worry about the future and our safety in it.
让我们开始担心未来和以后的安全
But for many people, it goes into overdrive.
但对很多人来说 这种忧心有些过分了
They experience persistent pervasive anxiety
这些人长期处在普遍焦虑之中
that disrupts work, school, and relationships
这影响了工作 学习以及人际关系
and leads them to avoid situations that may trigger symptoms.
导致他们逃避任何可能引发症状的情况
Anxiety disorders are not at all uncommon.
焦虑症并不罕见
Based on data from the World Mental Health Survey,
根据世界心理健康调查的数据
researchers estimate that about 16% of individuals
研究人员估计大约16%的人
currently have or have had an anxiety disorder.
目前患有或曾经患有焦虑症
These include social anxiety disorder,
包括社交焦虑障碍
panic disorder, agoraphobia and phobias.
惊恐障碍 恐旷症和恐惧症
Studies have shown that people with anxiety disorders
研究表明患有焦虑症的人
don’t just have a different way of reacting to stress.
不仅仅在应对压力的方式上有差异
There may be actual differences in how their brain is working.
大脑运作方式可能也存在实际差异
One model describes possible mix-ups in the connections between the amygdala
一种模型描述了杏仁核与大脑其他部分之间
and other parts of the brain.
可能存在的混乱联系
The pathways that signal anxiety become stronger.
传达焦虑信号的神经通路越来越强
And the more anxiety you have
你越焦虑
the stronger the pathways become,
这些神经通路就变得越强
and it becomes a vicious cycle.
这就形成了一个恶性循环
The good news is that there’s treatment for anxiety,
好消息是有治疗焦虑的方法
and that you don’t have to suffer.
这样你就不用受苦了
Remember, this isn’t about weakness.
记住 这与弱点无关
It’s about changing brain patterns
而是与改变大脑模式有关
and research shows that our brains
研究表明我们的大脑
have the ability to reorganize and form new connections
在一生当中都有能力重新组织
all throughout our lives.
并形成新的联结
A good first step is to do the basics.
好的第一步是做好基础工作
Eat a balanced diet, exercise regularly
饮食均衡 经常锻炼
and get plenty of sleep, as your mind is part of your body.
保持充足的睡眠 因为你的大脑是你身体的一部分
It might also help to try meditation.
尝试冥想也会有帮助
Instead of our heart rate rising
通过正念和呼吸
and our body tensing, with mindfulness and breathing
我们的心率会有所下降 身体有所舒缓
we can slow down the fight-or-flight response
我们可以放缓战斗或逃跑反应
and improve how we feel in the moment.
让当下的自己感觉更好
Cognitive behavioral therapy, a form of talk therapy,
认知行为疗法是一种谈话疗法
can also be fantastic.
也不失为一个好办法
In it, you learn to identify upsetting thoughts
在治疗过程中 你会学着识别消极想法
and determine whether they’re realistic.
并判断想法是否现实
Over time,
随着时间的推移
cognitive behavioral therapy can rebuild those neural pathways
认知行为疗法可以重建神经通路
that tamp down the anxiety response.
来抑制焦虑反应
Medication can also give relief, in both the short-term and the long-term.
长期与短期的药物治疗都可以缓解焦虑
In the short-term, anti-anxiety drugs can down-regulate
在短期内 抗焦虑药物可以控制住
the threat-detection mechanisms that are going into overdrive.
即将过火的危险感知机制
Studies have shown that both long-term medications
研究表明 长期药物治疗
and cognitive behavioral therapy can reduce
和认知行为疗法都可以减少
that overreactivity of the amygdala
我们在焦虑症中发现的
we see in anxiety disorders.
杏仁核的过度反应
High blood pressure and diabetes
随着时间的推移
they can be treated or managed over time.
高血压和糖尿病可以得到治疗或控制
And the same is true for an anxiety disorder too.
同样的 焦虑症也可以

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视频概述

生活中有时出现的焦虑情绪是很正常的,但是焦虑症却需要我们严肃对待。 我们不能对心理问题置之不理,相反,我们需要积极对待并治疗。这个视频介绍了正常的焦虑情绪与焦虑症的区别,希望对屏幕面前的你有所帮助。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

喵的薛定谔

审核员

审核员CICL

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xsEJ6GeAGb0

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