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探秘·象鼻的内部

What's Inside An Elephant Trunk

What if you could use your nose to snorkel,
如果你能用鼻子潜泳
or uproot a small tree,
连根拔起一棵小树
or smell water from several miles away?
嗅到几英里外的水 会怎么样?
Well, elephants wouldn’t be that impressed.They do it on the daily.
大象不会对此表示吃惊 它们每天都这样做……
thanks to what’s inside their trunk.
多亏了它们象鼻里的结构
象鼻里面有什么呢?
If you were to dissect an elephant trunk,
如果你仔细研究大象的鼻子
it would actually look more like the
它看起来更像是
inside of your tongue than your nose.
舌头的内部而不是鼻子
Trunks, tongues, and even octopus arms
象鼻 舌头 甚至章鱼的手臂
are unique organs called muscular hydrostats.
都是被称为肌肉性静水骨骼的独特器官
That means they’re made almost entirely of muscle,
这意味着它们几乎完全由肌肉组成
and an elephant’s trunk has a lot of them, about 40,000
大象的鼻子里有很多肌肉性静水骨骼 大约有4万块
compared to around 650 muscles in the entire human body.
与之相比 人体内只有650块
Normally, muscles depend on bones and joints
正常情况下 肌肉依赖骨头和关节
to move and exert force.
来运动和施加力量
For example,when we pick up a dumbbell,
例如 当我们举起哑铃时
our bicep pulls on our forearm bones
肱二头肌拉动前臂骨
and that causes them to swing up around our elbow joint.
使它们围绕肘关节向上转动
But in an elephant trunk,
但是在象鼻里
there are no bones to pull and no joints to hinge on.
没有骨头可以拉 没有关节可以铰接
The muscles take on that role instead.
肌肉扮演了这个角色
This makes trunks incredibly flexible,
这使象鼻异常灵活
they can move in all directions.
它们可以向各个方向移动
And all those muscles mean
而且全部为肌肉组成意味着
they’re powerful enough to lift hundreds of pounds,
它们有足够举起几百磅东西的力量
yet delicate enough to pick up a tortilla chip
也能完美地拿起玉米薄饼片
without even cracking it.
并且不会弄碎
But while trunks may be structured like a tongue
虽然象鼻的构造像舌头
and function like an arm,
并且功能像手臂
they are, in fact, a nose, and an exceptional one.
但事实上它们是一种特殊的鼻子
An animal’s sense of smell
动物的嗅觉
is linked to the number of olfactory receptor genes it has.
和嗅觉感受器基因的数量有关
And elephants, well, they have a lot of them,
大象拥有很多嗅觉感受器基因
nearly 2,000 – more than any other animal we know of.
接近2千个 比我们所知的任何动物都多
Bloodhounds, for example, only have about 800
例如 猎犬只有大约800个
while humans have even fewer.
而人类拥有的数量更少
In fact, an elephant’s nose is so good
实际上 大象的鼻子非常灵敏
it can actually sniff out bombs.
它可以嗅出炸弹
People have reported that African elephants
人们曾报道过非洲象
avoid land mines in Angola
在安哥拉避开过地雷
and in 2015, researchers put it to the test.
在2015年 研究人员对此展开了测试
Elephants were presented with a lineup of buckets
大象被放在一排桶前
filled with different smells, including TNT,
桶里充满了不同的气味 包括TNT—
the main ingredient in land mines.
地雷的主要成分
Out of 97 TNT samples,
在97个TNT样本中
elephants detected all but one.
只有一个没被大象检测出来
Of course, their trunks didn’t evolve as bomb detectors.
当然 它们的鼻子没有进化成炸弹探测器
They use their nose like we use our eyes,
他们的鼻子就像我们的眼睛一样
to find food and water, to avoid predators,
能去寻找食物和水 去避开捕食者
and to map out other elephants nearby.
和搜寻附近的其它大象
That’s like walking into a family reunion with your eyes closed
这就像即使闭着眼睛走进家庭聚会
and knowing exactly where everyone is.
也是知道每个人在哪的
But if you can believe it,
但是如果你相信
there are even more tricks up their trunks.
它们的鼻子还有更多的把戏
When elephants traverse deep rivers, for example,
例如 当大象穿越深河时
they curve their trunk into a snorkel,
它们把它们的鼻子弯成通气管
and when bathing, they can use it as a hose,
洗澡时 它们把象鼻当水管用
or more like a fire hose.
更像一个消防水管
With one suck, a trunk can pull in
象鼻吸一次
as much as 10 liters of water.
就能吸入多达10升的水
And the trunk’s impressive abilities haven’t gone unnoticed.
象鼻的惊人能力并没有被忽视
In fact, if you stick a mirror in front of an elephant,
事实上 如果你在大象面前竖一面镜子
one of their favorite activities
它们最喜爱的活动之一
is to open their mouth and check out their trunks.
就是张开嘴检查它们的鼻子
Let’s admit it, if you had a nose like that,
承认吧 如果你有那样的鼻子
you would do the exact same thing.
你会做同样的事情

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视频概述

想知道为什么大象的鼻子这么神奇吗?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Lee

审核员

审核员 AF

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DjpRgi-73bU

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