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捕蝇草里的奥秘 – 译学馆
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捕蝇草里的奥秘

What's Inside A Venus Flytrap?

When it comes to deadly predators,
提到致命掠食者
plants generally don’t come to mind.
植物一般不会浮现在脑海中
After all, they’re typically at the bottom of the food chain.
毕竟 它们通常处于食物链底层
But the Carolinas are home to one vicious vegetable:
但在美国卡罗莱纳州 有一种凶猛的植物
The Venus Flytrap
捕蝇草
Using its famous trap, it can catch prey faster than you can blink.
它可以利用陷阱捕获猎物 速度比眨眼还快
But what happens next inside a Venus flytrap?
那之后 捕蝇草里面发生了什么呢?
Funny thing about Venus flytraps, they don’t usually trap flies.
有意思的是 捕蝇草并不经常捕猎苍蝇
Funny thing about Venus flytraps, they don’t usually trap flies.
有意思的是 捕蝇草并不经常捕猎苍蝇
In fact, winged insects only make up about 5% of their diet.
事实上 他们的食谱中 飞虫类仅占5%
Clyde Sorenson: We really ought to be calling it the Carolina spider trap
我们其实应该叫它 卡罗莱纳的蜘蛛陷阱
because that’s really…it’s only found in the Carolinas,
因为仅在卡罗莱纳州的少数地区
and, actually, a little piece of the Carolinas,
发现它的踪影
and it mostly eats spiders and ants.
它主要以蜘蛛和蚂蚁为食
Narrator: But, of course, regardless of species,
不过 不管是什么虫子
that bug is going to have a bad day.
碰上捕蝇草就意味着 这天不太妙
that bug is going to have a bad day.
碰上捕蝇草就意味着 这天不太妙
It all starts when the victim wanders into the trap,
故事开始于猎物溜达到陷阱里的时候
possibly lured by the bright-red hue or fragrant scent.
它可能是被鲜红颜色或芳香气味所吸引
Or maybe they’re just unlucky.
也可能只是运气不好
Sorenson: We think the spiders mostly just blunder.
我们认为 大多数蜘蛛都只是误入陷阱
Narrator: The trap itself looks like an open mouth.
捕蝇草看起来就像张大的嘴
It’s made of two pads attached to a hinge.
由一片叶轴连接两片叶而形成
Sorenson: On each one of those pads, there are usually three little trigger hairs
在每片叶上 一般有三个小刺针
in a kind of a triangle.
呈三角形排列
And those trigger hairs are very, very sensitive to being disturbed.
这些刺针对于受到的干扰十分敏感
Narrator: The first time a spider knocks into a hair,
刺针一旦被蜘蛛触碰到
it sets off an electrical signal,
即刻产生一种电信号
sort of like the electrical currents in your brain.
有点像我们大脑中的电流
That signal starts the countdown.
随着电信号的出现 倒计时开始了
If the bug escapes within 20 to 30 seconds, nothing else happens.
如果昆虫能在二三十秒内逃脱 则相安无事
That way, the plant doesn’t waste energy.
这样捕蝇草也不会浪费精力
But if the bug brushes against another hair, snap!
但如果它碰到另一根刺针 陷阱将“砰”地关上
In just 100 milliseconds, about four times faster
关闭的过程不超过100毫秒
than you can blink, the trap slams shut.
比我们眨眼的时间 还要快四倍
Sorenson: Then, the trap rapidly goes from convex to concave on each side,
捕蝇草的两片叶瞬间由张开 变成闭合状
and the long little spikes on the rims of the pads
叶片边缘细长的尖刺
interlock to form kind of a cage.
像笼网一样紧紧合起
Narrator: Now, of course, the spider isn’t happy with this turn of events.
此时 蜘蛛对周遭的变化 感到不适
So it tries to escape,
因而它尝试挣脱
which is exactly what the plant wants.
这就正中捕蝇草下怀
The more the spider struggles, the more it knocks
蜘蛛越是挣扎 越频繁碰到刺针
into the trigger hairs, the tighter the trap closes.
捕蝇草就关得更紧
And after an hour or two, the trap locks completely.
一两个小时后 捕蝇草彻底锁死
Cells on the edges of the pad secrete moisture,
叶片边缘的细胞开始分泌液体
which glues the edges together to form an airtight seal.
将边缘粘黏在一起 形成密闭的空间
Suddenly, that trap isn’t a mouth anymore; it’s a stomach.
此刻 捕蝇草不再是一张“嘴” 而是一个“胃”
Digestive juices flood into the closed compartment,
密闭的空间中涌入大量消化液
dissolving the spider’s soft organs,
蜘蛛脆弱的器官被消化
and the trap’s lining sucks up that nutrient-rich slushy.
形成营养丰富的消化物 被捕蝇草内部吸收
After about a week, all that’s left is an empty husk,
大约一周之后 仅剩一个空壳
the spider’s exoskeleton.
就是蜘蛛的外骨骼
Next, the trap reopens and the husk tumbles out.
之后 捕蝇草再度张开 空壳掉落出来
The trap is now ready for its next meal.
此时的捕蝇草已准备好再次狩猎了
But bugs aren’t the only food the trap captures.
但昆虫并不是捕蝇草的唯一食物来源
Just like leaves on other plants, the trap’s surface contains a green pigment
和其他植物一样 捕蝇草叶片表面有叶绿素
that lets it convert the sun’s energy into sugar through a process called photosynthesis.
可以通过光合作用 将太阳能转化为糖分
So then, why bother with the bugs?
那为什么还要费尽心思捕虫呢?
Well, Venus flytraps live in acidic, waterlogged soil
这是因为捕蝇草生长在酸性的涝渍地上
that doesn’t have many nutrients.
土壤营养物有限
So, instead of slurping up nitrogen and phosphorus
因此 不同于根部吸收的方式
through its roots, it needs to borrow some from the bugs.
它们需要从昆虫身上获取氮元素和磷元素
That explains why it shares its home with other hungry carnivorous plants,
正因如此 他们可以和猪笼草 茅膏菜等
like pitcher plants and sundews,
其它肉食性植物共存于一片土地上
which could only mean one thing:
这证明了一件事情
North Carolina is not a fun place to be a bug.
北卡罗莱纳州的小昆虫 生活不易啊

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卡罗莱纳州的捕蝇草是如何捕获昆虫的

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