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耳朵的作用不止是“听”

What's Inside A Human Ear?

We have noses to smell,
鼻子用来嗅
eyes to see, and ears to hear, right?
眼睛用来看 耳朵用来听 没错吧?
Well, actually, your ears are responsible for much more than just hearing.
然而实际上 耳朵的作用远不仅于此
In fact, they can even help you taste.
事实上 耳朵还能帮助品尝味道
And that’s all thanks to what’s inside.
这些都归功于耳朵的内部构造
We think of ears as these flappy appendages that stick out of our heads.
人们认为耳朵是突起于脑袋两侧的附属物
But the most important structures
然而它最重要的结构
are actually on the inside,
其实是在内部
and they’re known as the inner and middle ear.
即所说的内耳和中耳
Iram Ahmad: Inside your middle ear is the nerve that moves the muscles of your face.
中耳内部有神经 负责脸部肌肉的运动
Narrator: Aka the facial nerve.
也就是所谓的面神经
And if it becomes inflamed or injured,
如果它发炎或者受损
say, from a nasty ear infection,
比如说 耳部受到严重感染后
you can lose control of the muscles in your face.
你会无法掌控面部肌肉的活动
But it could actually get worse.
而且事情有可能更糟
Ahmad: Now, along that facial nerve there is a taste nerve.
和面神经相伴的 还有味觉神经
It’s called chorda tympani.
名为鼓索
Narrator: That’s right, the nerve for taste
没错 负责味觉的神经
runs right through your middle ear.
穿过中耳内部
And if that nerve gets damaged,
当它受损时
you could alter or even lose your sense of taste permanently.
可能会导致味觉改变或永久丧失
By the way, not only are your ears incredibly important for tasting food,
还有 不光是耳朵在味觉上起重要作用
but what you’re listening to
你所听到的声音
can also change your food’s flavor.
还可以改变你感知到的食物味道
For example, research has shown that
比如 研究表明
white noise can dull saltiness but enhance crunchiness.
白噪音能使食物尝起来不那么咸 但会更脆
And in one study, volunteers perceived
另一个试验中 志愿者发现
a dish to be eggier when they listened to the sound of clucking chickens.
当听到小鸡咯咯叫时 食物尝起来会带有鸡蛋味
But whether it’s the sound of chickens
不管是鸡的咯咯叫
or my beautiful voice,
还是我美妙的嗓音
it all enters your ear through the cochlea,
所有声音都通过耳蜗传递进去
a shell-like structure in the inner ear.
耳蜗是位于内耳的贝壳形状的结构
Inside the cochlea there are over 16,000 hairlike cells,
超过16000个毛状细胞分布其中
which take vibrations entering your ear
它们能感受进入耳内的震动
and convert them into nerve impulses.
并将其转化为神经脉冲
Those impulses travel to your brain,
脉冲进入大脑
which turns them into the sound you hear.
转化为你能听到的声音
So if it weren’t for those cells, you’d be deaf.
多亏了这些毛状细胞 你才能听到声音
Which is why it’s incredibly important
所以它们如此重要
that you keep them protected.
你需要好好保护它们
Especially from menaces like bacteria, viruses,
尤其是避免来自细菌 病毒
and even adventurous insects.
甚至是一些好奇的昆虫的威胁
And for that, your ears’ best defense is earwax.
为此 耳朵有一道最佳防线 那就是耳垢
Ahmad: Earwax is good.
耳垢是有益的
It is not bad to have earwax.
有耳垢不是坏事
Narrator: That’s right. You need that gross, golden wax.
没错 你需要那黄色恶心的耳垢
It not only has antibacterial properties,
耳垢不仅有抗菌作用
but it’s also downright sticky,
还能通过它的粘性作用
helping to stop invaders right in their tracks.
阻挡异物入侵耳道
But earwax isn’t the only part of your inner ear
除了耳垢 内耳中还有其他结构
that keeps you healthy.
来确保你的健康
Ahmad: So, there is a tube made of muscle
有一条肌肉组成的管道
that connects the back of your nose and your ears.
连接着鼻腔后部和耳朵
Narrator: It’s called the eustachian tube,
它被称为咽鼓管
and it helps equalize pressure
有助于平衡气压
between your ears and the atmosphere around you.
让你的耳朵和周围的气压保持平衡
Normally the tube is sealed off
咽鼓管通常是密闭的
so nothing can travel between your ears and your throat,
因此耳朵和咽喉之间并不相通
which keeps infections at bay.
这样能使感染限制在局部
But when there’s a change in pressure,
但是当气压发生变化
like when you’re taking off in an airplane,
比如在飞机起飞时
the air inside the tube expands.
咽鼓管内侧的气体膨胀
Which typically makes you want to pop your ears.
通常你会感觉耳朵发胀
And that’s a good thing too,
这也是件好事
because popping your ears
因为耳朵发胀
opens the tube and releases the air,
会使咽鼓管打开并释放气体
balancing the pressure inside and out.
使内外两侧的气压达到平衡
Speaking of balance, there’s one other incredibly important structure
说到平衡 还有一个非常重要的结构
you can find inside your inner ear:
它位于内耳
the vestibular system.
那就是前庭系统
Kind of like a level, it controls your balance
它类似水平仪
using a number of liquid-filled canals.
通过许多充满液体的管道来控制平衡
Ahmad: Those balance canals are responsible for telling your body you are moving.
这些管道负责告诉身体你正在移动
Whether it may be moving left to right
可能是左右移动
or your body’s moving up and down.
也可能是上下移动
Narrator: As you move around,
当你来回走动
fluid in the canals sloshes against millions of hairlike structures,
管内的液体冲击上百万的毛状结构
it’s called stereocilia,
我们称之为纤毛
and this sends a signal to the brain
这会给大脑发出信号
where you process it as movement.
大脑将其处理为身体在移动
That’s why infections like the common cold
这也解释了为什么像普通感冒那种感染
can sometimes make you feel dizzy.
有时候会导致眩晕
They often cause inflammation in the vestibular nerve,
因为感冒通常会导致前庭神经发炎
which distorts those signals.
从而干扰这些信号
So the next time you find yourself
所以在今后
walking without falling over,
当你步履平稳
or tasting your food,
当你品味美食
or listening to, well, anything,
当你聆听声音 不一而足
think of your ears.
别忘了耳朵的作用
Which, as it turns out,
正如我们所知道的
have a lot more going on inside than out.
耳朵的作用远远不止是“听“

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视频概述

除了听,耳朵还有很多其他作用,让我们一起来了解一下。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

zbz

审核员

审核员XY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9o13G_hqg6U

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