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驼峰里是啥?

What's Inside A Camel Hump?

Did you know that camels used to live in the Arctic tundra?
你知道骆驼曾生活在北极苔原上吗?
Yes, camels! Walking around on ice and snow.
是的!骆驼!在冰雪上漫步
It’s true.
这是真的
In 2013, scientists announced they’d discovered
在2013年 科学家宣布他们发现了
mummified leg bones on Ellesmere Island,
埃尔斯米尔岛上骆驼木乃伊化的腿骨
which belonged to the ancestors of modern-day one- and two-humped camels.
它们属于现代单驼峰和双驼峰骆驼的祖先
In fact, enduring the frigid tundra is how scientists think
事实上 科学家认为 骆驼对寒冷苔原的忍受
camels got their iconic hump in the first place,
是骆驼最初形成其标志性驼峰的原因
because what’s inside helped them survive
因为正是驼峰里的东西帮它们活了下来
in an age when many other animals were wiped out.
而那个年代的许多其他动物都灭绝了
John Hare: What’s inside a camel’s hump is fat,
骆驼的驼峰里是脂肪
and a lot of people think it’s water.
不过 很多人认为里面是水
But it’s certainly not; it’s fat,
但是 这里面确实不是水 而是脂肪
and it nourishes them when they’re on long journeys.
这些脂肪会为长途跋涉的骆驼提供营养
Narrator: That’s right, fat.
对 就是脂肪
Each hump can store up to 36 kilograms of it,
每一个驼峰可以存储高达36千克的脂肪
which can sustain the camel for weeks
这些脂肪可以让骆驼在没有食物的情况下
or even months without food.
坚持数周 甚至数月
And that sort of adaptation was especially important
而这种适应能力
3.5 million years ago, during the middle of an ice age,
对350万年前 冰河纪中期
when the ancestors to modern camels
生活在北极苔原上的
were hanging out in the Arctic tundra.
现代骆驼的祖先尤为重要
Hare: Talking about the Ice Age,
谈到冰河时代
when a lot of mammals were killed during that time,
当时 大量的哺乳动物都死亡了
and yet the camel managed to survive
然而通过进化出这个应急食物(储备)系统
by developing this emergency food system
骆驼成功地活了下来
if you like: the hump.
你可以称之为:驼峰
Narrator: Eventually, camels migrated across the Bering Strait
最终 骆驼迁徙穿过白令海峡
into regions of Asia and Africa,
到达亚洲和非洲地区
where the fat inside their humps
它们驼峰里的脂肪
helped them adapt yet again.
再一次帮助它们适应了环境
This time, to the blistering-hot temperatures of deserts
这一次 它们适应了沙漠中的酷热高温
like the Gobi and Sahara.
比如在戈壁和撒哈拉沙漠
You see, camels are one of the only animals in the world
如你所见 骆驼是世界上唯一一种
that store all their fat in one spot.
能把脂肪储存在一个地方的动物
And that’s useful for keeping cool in a hot climate
这对于在炎热气候中保持凉爽也很有用
because heat can escape faster from the rest of their body,
因为热量可以更快从身体的其他部分散发
which helps them maintain a lower body temperature.
这使得它们能保持一个较低的体温
Compare that to other mammals, like humans,
与其他哺乳动物相比 比如人类
who store fat all over,
全身都储存着脂肪
making it a lot harder to stay cool.
这使得人们很难保持凉爽
Today, camels still use the fat in their humps as a food reserve,
如今 骆驼仍把驼峰中的脂肪作为“救济粮”
but they’re not the only ones.
但是 它们不是唯一这样做的
In extreme circumstances,
在极端情况下
the Turkana tribe in Kenya, for example
比如肯尼亚的图尔卡纳部落
will eat camel fat to survive.
会吃骆驼的脂肪以求生存
Hare: They suffer a lot from periods of extreme drought,
他们经历着极度的干旱
and I have seen these people,
我见过这些人
they’ve been very, very short on food,
他们的食物非常非常短缺
and this is difficult to believe, but it’s true,
虽然这让人难以置信 但这是真的
slit open the top of a camel’s hump,
(他们会)在骆驼的驼峰上切开一条口子
take out the fat for their own consumption,
取出他们需要食用的脂肪
and then put the top of the hump back on again.
然后再把驼峰的顶部放回去
Narrator: But don’t worry, the camel makes a full recovery
不用担心 骆驼们可以完全康复
and instances are rare.
并且这样的情况也不多
But this practice has started to generate some buzz
但这种将骆驼脂肪作为一种新的超级食物的做法
around camel fat as a new superfood.
已经开始引起人们的关注
Turns out, camel fat is loaded with fatty acids,
事实证明 骆驼脂肪富含脂肪酸
vitamins, and minerals.
维他命和矿物质
Desert Farms, a company that sells camel fat,
沙漠农场 一家售卖骆驼脂肪的公司
says that just 1 tablespoon contains
据说仅一汤勺的骆驼脂肪就包含了
40% of your daily vitamin B12 needs
你每日所需维他命B12的40%
and three times the amount of oleic acid than coconut oil,
而油酸的含量也是另一种超级食物
a superfood staple.
椰子油的三倍
And since all that nutritious fat is what fills the hump out,
由于驼峰里填满了所有营养丰富的脂肪
when a camel fasts for long periods,
因此当一头骆驼长期缺少食物
its hump can actually go limp.
它的驼峰会耷拉下去
Hare: The humps gradually diminish in size.
驼峰的尺寸会渐渐缩小
If it’s been in a very harsh environment,
如果骆驼处于非常恶劣的环境中
they go completely limp
驼峰会完全瘫软
and flop over the side of the camel’s backbone.
并翻向骆驼的脊椎骨一侧
Narrator: Now, since we know that fat
现在 既然我们知道驼峰
is what makes up the hump instead of water,
由脂肪而不是水组成
that got us wondering:
我们不禁想知道
How do camels stay hydrated in such dry climates?
在如此干燥的气候中 骆驼是如何补水的?
Well, they have unique blood cells that run throughout their entire body,
它们浑身充满了独特的血细胞
including a few in the hump itself.
包括驼峰里也存在一些
These blood cells are extremely elastic,
这些血细胞极富弹性
perfect for holding a lot of water.
非常适合储存大量的水
Camels can drink up to 115 liters in about 10 minutes,
骆驼可以在10分钟内喝下多达115升的水
expanding the cells up to 240% in the process.
此过程中 血细胞将扩张到自身的240%
Hare: There are capillaries throughout its body,
骆驼全身都布满了毛血细管
and when it has a drink, it drinks and drinks and drinks,
当骆驼喝水的时候 它会不停地喝 喝 喝
and it swells up, and it looks as though it’s pregnant.
然后骆驼的身体会胀大 看起来像怀孕了一样
Narrator: If that’s not impressive enough,
如果这还不够让人赞叹
the wild camel of China has even been known to survive on salt water.
中国的野生骆驼甚至能够靠盐水存活
So, whether it’s surviving the harsh desert heat,
骆驼无论是在恶劣的沙漠高温下
weeks without food and water,
还是数周没有水和食物的条件下
or even the Canadian Arctic,
甚至在加拿大的北极群岛都能存活
the camel is one of the best adapters in the animal kingdom
骆驼作为动物王国最优秀适应者之一
and that’s in large part
很大程度上
thanks to its iconic hump.
要感谢它标志性的驼峰

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视频概述

本视频简要介绍了驼峰的由来和功能。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

我叫豆豆飞

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oyM_AXN_QNI

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