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狗粮里都有什么? – 译学馆
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狗粮里都有什么?

What's In Dog Food?

Have you ever thought about how strange it is
狗狗一辈子都吃着又干又难闻的狗粮
that dogs eat these dry, weird smelling bits of food
却从没有嫌弃过
for their entire lives and never get sick of them?
你有没有觉得奇怪?
How torturous would it be to be forced
如果强迫你十年来每餐
to eat the same boring cheese sandwich
都吃单调的奶酪三明治
for every meal of the day for a decade on end?
那会有多煎熬?
Are we torturing our dogs?
我们在折磨狗狗吗?
As it turns out, no, dog food kibble
并没有 狗粮其实是
is a chemically custom tailored product
化学定制产品
that meets every mark when it comes to
能满足多项指标
nutrition, diet, and the interesting eating preferences of dogs.
如营养 膳食和狗的饮食偏好
Once you see what dog food kibble is actually made of
要是弄清楚实际成分
you’ll come to find that the real wonder science behind it
你就会发现它蕴含的科学多惊人
is the chemistry used to tickle Sparky’s fancy
其中的化学物能刺激Sparky的想象力
into thinking this stuff is to die for, when really it’s not.
让它误以为狗粮美味 而事实却正相反
Making the perfect dog food kibble is a scientific puzzle
制造完美的狗粮是科学级难题
because each bite needs to balance
因为每一口都要把握好
a lifetime of nutritional requirements
狗狗一生的营养需求
with affordability, and of course, with palatability.
是否容易消化 味道如何
Though some dogs seem to eat just about anything.
虽然有些狗狗似乎什么都吃
To optimize nutrition and cost, some added ingredients
为了优化营养和成本 有些配料
aren’t exactly what dogs would want to call food
并不是狗狗喜欢的食物
so scientists had to create a solution to trick their senses
所以科学家必须想办法迷惑它们的感官
into thinking it’s something that it’s not.
让它们觉得事情并非如此
Before we get into that, let’s take a look at
开始前 我们先看看
what’s inside a pellet of kibble
狗粮里都含有什么
An organization called the Association of American Feed Control Officials
美国饲料品管协会
provide nutritional standards for dog food manufacturers.
给狗粮生产商设定了营养标准
There’s a whole bunch of different dog food formulas on the market,
市面上有各种各样的狗粮配方
some are designed for weight loss and others for richer coats,
有用来减肥的 有丰富皮毛的
but the overall ingredients are relatively standard.
总的来说 成分相对标准
These include grains, meats, fats, a vitamin/mineral pre-mix,
其中包括谷物 肉类 脂肪 维生素/矿物质预混料
and chemical additives for color and a long shelf life.
以及着色和延长保质期的化学添加剂
Yeah, your dog probably eats a better balanced diet than you.
没错 狗狗可能吃的比你还要好
Grains like wheat, rice, and corn, are added as
小麦 大米和玉米等谷物添加物
a source of starchy carbohydrates
能提供淀粉类碳水化合物
that offer an inexpensive source of energy for dogs.
这是廉价的能量来源
Since raw starch is not easy to digest, the grains are cooked
生淀粉不易消化 只有烹调谷物
which makes the starch in them about 90% more digestible.
才能使90%的淀粉更容易消化
This allows dogs to extract more nutrients out of the grains,
才能让狗狗吸收更多营养
giving Sparky that energy boost he needs
给予Sparky足够的能量
to play with his friends all day
跟朋友玩耍一整天
Cooking the grains also gives kibble its shape and texture
烹调会糊化淀粉
by causing the starches to gelatinize
使狗粮成型并产生纹理
giving kibble a stable, bulky quality.
从而让其品质稳定可靠
Some types of grain also provide fiber,
有些谷物含有纤维素
which makes using these little bags a lot easier
这会加快狗粮消耗
If you know what I mean
如果你能理解的话
But when it comes to a dog’s choice of what they prefer to eat,
但如果让狗狗自己选喜欢的食物
dogs will more often than not, choose meat over carbs.
它们通常会选肉而非碳水化合物
Meats and meat meals are added as the primary source of protein in kibble.
狗粮中添加的肉和肉粉是蛋白质的主要来源
Meat meals, are made from all the animal parts we typically don’t eat
肉粉是我们通常不吃的动物部位制成的
like: scraps, guts, and bones.
如:残渣 内脏 骨头
These by-products are cooked and dehydrated
这些副产品经烹调脱水
and end up contributing more protein to dog food than added meats.
能比添加肉给狗粮增加更多蛋白质
Dogs will break down proteins in their small intestine,
狗狗的小肠将蛋白质
into amino acids, which are crucial for muscle growth
分解为氨基酸 这对增肌
and the synthesis of hormones and neurotransmitters
合成激素和神经递质至关重要
There are 10 essential amino acids that dogs need to survive
狗狗必需的氨基酸有10种
and all of those need to be included in a healthy dog food diet
健康的饮食必须包含它们
so little Fido can hog your bed for years to come.
这样小Fido才会健康长久
Fats are also an important source of energy in a dog’s diet
脂肪也是狗狗饮食中重要的能量来源
Little Scruffy’s skin and coat are greatly affected by fatty acids
小Scruffy的皮毛受脂肪酸影响极大
and without the right ones, his hair can become dry, matted and well, scruffy
缺少合适的脂肪酸 小Scruffy的毛皮会干结暗淡 邋遢不堪
making him an aptly named dog.
让它成为名符其实的小邋遢
So dog food manufacturers add in several types of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids,
因此生产商添加了多种欧米伽-6和欧米伽-3脂肪酸
to make Sparkles a more apt name.
使Sparkles(活力)也名符其实
Fats also add a little extra flavor, which is a big help
脂肪作用很大 能增添额外风味
because a lack of flavor is kibble’s biggest problem, well, to a dog, anyway.
因为对狗狗来说 味道才是最重要的
These crunchy, dry pellets are super bland, odorless,
这些颗粒又干又脆 平淡无味
and unattractive to dogs.
对狗狗毫无吸引力
Not only are they made largely from grains,
因为它主要由谷物制成
a food that they would usually have nothing to do with
这是狗狗一般不吃的东西
research has also shown that dried dog food has far less aroma than the wet stuff
研究还表明湿狗粮味道比干的更浓
The dog’s nose is around 10,000 times more powerful than ours,
狗的嗅觉比人类灵敏约一万倍
and they rely heavily on their sense of smell
它们极为依赖嗅觉
to hunt and scavenge for food in nature.
尤其在捕食和觅食时
Keep in mind, flavor doesn’t just describe what’s happening on taste buds,
记住 味道既能描述味蕾上的变化
it also factors in aroma, so a food without a smell,
它也是香味的特征 因此没有气味的食物
to dogs is really unappetizing
对狗狗毫无吸引力
This is where flavor chemists come in.
于是香料化学家便应运而出
They developed a custom built chemical aroma called palatants
他们开发了定制化学香气:可口料
that trick dogs into thinking these bland pellets have big flavor.
让狗狗误认为这些寻常颗粒风味浓郁
Palatants are sprayed onto the outside of dog food
将可口料喷洒在狗粮表面
similar to how we flavor potato chips
就好比给薯片调味一样
– the big difference is that,
最大的不同在于口味
Sparky doesn’t care for smoking hot barbeque
Sparky不喜欢烟熏烤肉
– he wants wild rotten corpse or raging roadkill.
它想吃野外的腐烂尸体或者路毙动物
Dogs are attracted to flavors that would make us gag,
令人作呕的味道很吸引狗狗
like Putrescine and Cadaverine, two cleverly named compounds
比如腐胺 尸胺这两种命名巧妙的化合物
that come from the breakdown of proteins
它们是蛋白质分解的产物
These two compounds quite literally smell like a dead body,
闻起来很像死尸的味道
and for some reason, dogs absolutely love it.
但不知为何 狗狗非常喜欢
Yeah, Max will be having the time of her life
僵尸末日降临之时
when that zombie apocalypse finally comes
定会是Max最幸福的时刻
Flavor chemists build palatants off this bizarre preference,
香料化学家根据这种嗜好来开发可口料
which helps to give the bland, dried kibble a desirable disguise
把平淡无味的狗粮完美伪装起来
to stroke Sparkle’s interest
从而吸引Sparkles
Keeping your dog happy is keeping your dog healthy.
要让狗狗健康就要让它快乐
Flavor chemists use their genius to make these boring bits of food
香料化学家运用天赋 将这些寻常食物
into something spectacular to your dogs’ nose,
制成了狗狗的最爱
and we thank them for that
我们要感谢他们的付出
Oh, and believe me they’re on your side.
也要相信 他们跟你齐心
When making these artificial dog aromas, they factor in our sense of smell too,
在开发人造香味时 也考虑了我们的嗅觉
so you know, we don’t vomit every time we open the dog food bag.
所以每次拆狗粮袋 我们不会反胃
If you’re a music fan — which I’m guessing is most of you
我猜你们大多是音乐迷
— you should definitely check out Sound Field, the newest show from PBS Digital Studios.
那一定要看看 PBS数字工作室的最新节目《声场》
Sound Field breaks down our favorite songs and artists
它细分了我们最爱的歌曲 艺术家
from all genres from Bach to Beyonce.
从巴赫到碧昂丝的各种流派
The show is hosted by two amazing musicians
该节目的主持是两位杰出音乐家
Nahre Sol and “LA”Buckner
纳尔·索尔和“洛杉矶”巴克纳
who even come up with an original song in every episode.
他们甚至能在一集节目里创作出歌曲
Check out Sound Field at the link in the doobleydoo below.
点击下方doobleydoo中的链接 收看《声场》
We love making videos about pets, and want to know
我们热爱制作宠物视频并想知道
if you have any other pet related chemistry questions for us to answer.
您是否还有关于宠物的化学问题需要解答
Let us know down in the comments.
请在评论中留言
And be sure to like and subscribe on your way out.
离开记得点击喜欢并订阅哦
Thanks for watching.
谢谢收看

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视频概述

介绍狗粮的成分

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收集自网络

翻译译者

Mr.玥

审核员

审核员MS

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_UJWctZyguY

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