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文化碰撞之科普集:幽默是啥? – 译学馆
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文化碰撞之科普集:幽默是啥?

What's Funny?

文化碰撞
“幽默”是啥?“幽默”是啥 “幽默”是啥 “幽默”是啥……
What’s funny? what’s funny, what’s funny, what’s funny? what’s funny, what’s fun…
感谢我们所有的赞助人
大家好 我是“文化”
Hey guys, culture here.
今天我们将探讨幽默是个什么玩意儿
Today we’re going to discuss what “funny” is.
更具体一点 我们来弄明白有些事物幽默的成因
More specifically, we’ll figure out why certain things are funny,
以及幽默表现的形式
and the forms that humour takes.
这一集可一点儿不幽默
This episode is not going to be funny.
我觉得还行
I think that’s fine.
观众大概会认为这是个关于喜剧的学术性探讨吧
People will probably appreciate that this is a more academic discussion of comedy.
呃哦——我都能听到你声音的尖利了
Ugh, I can actually hear the tweet in your voice,
这种粗糙的纹理简直在折磨我的耳朵
the rough texture is grading my ears.
那现在你知道我每次听你说话是什么感受了
Now you know how I feel listening to your voice all the time.
笑声是全世界的人共享的东西
Laughter is something which people all around the world share,
它是人类体验的基本组成部分
fundamental component of the human experience.
为什么幽默对于人类处境不可或缺呢?
So why is humor so integral to the human condition?
它起着什么样的作用?
What function does it serve?
可能最原始的喜剧形式之一就是闹笑话了
Perhaps one of the most rudimentary forms of comedy is slapstick,
当有人出糗 我们就笑了
someone gets hurt, we laugh.
呃哦哦 天哪……
Ohhhh, my goodness…
噢……天
Ohhhh, yeah.
就像这个
Just like that.
当然这段视频只是搞笑 因为我们知道孩子们还好
Of course this clip is only funny because we know the kid is fine.
没有严重的伤害
There’s no serious damage.
一种理论认为这就是笑声的功能:
One theory suggests that this is the function of laughter,
让其他人知道一切还好
to let others know that everything’s all right.
它适用于肢体性喜剧
It works for physical comedy,
也适用于我们互相取笑的场景
and it also works when we’re teasing each other.
笑声让人知道情况是还好 还是不好
Laughter let’s everyone know what’s okay and what’s not.
所以就像两只小狗闹着玩
So it’s kind of like puppies play fighting with one another,
其中一个张大嘴巴去咬另一个的头
where one of them puts the other one’s head in its mouth,
另一个觉得 “这没关系”
and the other one’s like “that’s cool”, but then they bite a bit too hard and suddenly heat’s on,
可接下来咬的力气大了点 于是突然间一阵疼痛
它们彼此分开 都觉得它们可真是条小恶犬
and they part each other thinking they’re all tough,
但实际上它们可爱死了
but they’re actually just adorable.
说的没错 “碰撞” 就像这样
Yeah sure Crash, it’s exactly like that.
将这一想法延伸一下
Extending that idea around, one can think of laughter as a signal that something is outside of our normality,
那么笑声可以视作一种信号 即某事物正处于我们常态之外
但害处并不大
but in a harmless way.
能够识别社会与逻辑不协调的能力
The ability to recognise the social and logical
体现了情商和认知弹性
demonstrates emotional intelligence and cognitive flexibility,
这是我们在同伴身上寻求的两个特性
both traits that we seek our partners.
这意味着有更好幽默感的人更吸引人
That means people with a better sense of humour or more attractive
也更可能将基因传递下去
and more likely to pass their genes on.
是啊是啊 我都已经听过上百万次
Yeah yeah, I’ve heard this one million times.
“我只想找一个善良又幽默的男人 他会尊重我”
I’m just looking for a nice funny guy who will treat me with respect.
撒谎 全都是谎言
Lies! All of them are lies!
这些女生只会迷恋那些神秘的坏小子
Girls mysterious dudes!
这就是我为什么像个妇女之友
That’s to the ladies.
有时候你说话可真让我不爽
Sometimes you upset me when you talk.
与你毫无根据的观点相反 幽默的人是非常讨人喜欢的
Contrary to your being funny is definitely endearing.
一些研究者表示这就是为什么男性倾向于相互开玩笑
Some researches suggest this is why males in particular tend to bag each other.
包? 呃……
Bag? E
可得了吧 你知道我什么意思
Come on, you know what I mean.
打趣 调侃 讥笑 嘲笑 戏弄 互相取笑 这都是我要说的
Bag, rib,razz, mock, rag, tease one another is what I’m trying to say.
一个男女两性的常识是 女生觉得能逗她们笑的男生会更有魅力
Common knowledge in the field is that women find men attractive if they can make them laugh,
与此同时男生发现爱笑的女生很有吸引力
whilst men find women who laugh attractive.
就像一个良性的反馈循环
Its kind of like a positive feedback leap,
将两者连接起来
which is what coupling up is all about.
男性间互相打趣的行为只是展示自己的一种方式
Men’s teasing each other is just one way to show off their chops,
给姑娘们展示他们是如何的风趣和幽默
to demonstrate to girls looking on how funny they are.
当然了 现实情况会更加复杂
Of course, it’s not as simple as that.
但这确实解释了笑声的生物学基础
But it certainly explains the biological basis of laughter.
如果你没有幽默细胞 这压根就没有意义
Oh this is useless though if you are born without a funny bone in your body,
呃 不是说人生来就有的麻筋儿
well, except the funny bone which our people are born with,
除非你出生带有某种状况
unless you were born with some kind of conditioning which case I suppose you could say
这样我觉得你又能说……
行了 别说了 没有人不带幽默细胞
Enough, forget it. All is not lost though.
即便你认为自己不是个幽默的人 你依然可以学会幽默
Even if you don’t consider yourself a funny person, you can still learn to be funny.
你只需要潜能发挥出来
You just have to make the most of what you’ve got,
最大化激发你身体里面的喜剧因子潜力
maximise the comedy potential within you.
有些人言辞诙谐
Some people are weedy,
有些人具备独特的视角
some people havesome people can tell hilarious stories,
还有人能够讲令人捧腹大笑的故事
此外还有小丑 他们将自己作为乐子来获取笑声
and of course there are the clowns who get the laughs by being the buttof their own joke.
要确定哪种途径最适合你
To review which part is best for you, it’s best to understand the different types of funny.
最好先理解幽默有几种形式
你说了屁股
– You said “butt”- Despite the evidence in front of me, I truly believe that anyone can be funny.
尽管有我前面这个家伙作为反例
但我真心相信每个人都可以成为幽默大师
幽默成因的另一个理论是优越论
One theory of what makes things funny is The Superiority Theory,
早在古希腊时期就有人提出这个理论
proposed as early as the ancient Greeks
后来被查尔斯·格鲁纳在《幽默的戏法》一书中进一步发展
but refined by Charles R Gruner in his book The Game of Humour.
格鲁纳提出 我们笑是因为我们对观察对象具有优越感
Gruner proposed that we laugh because we are made to feel superior to the people we are watching.
以这个小宝宝为例
Take this baby for example.
根据格鲁纳的理论 我们可以说 我们感觉优越
According to Gruner, we might say that we feel superior
是因为我们知道接下来会发生什么 而小宝宝不知道
because we know what’s going to happen whilst the baby doesn’t.
它本质上是一个长达11秒的戏剧性反讽的演示
It’s a century in 11 second demonstration of dramatic irony
我们也可以说 小宝宝可爱的肉嘟嘟的小脸 看上去真是萌萌哒
We might also say that the baby looks so defenseless with its adorably chubby cheeks,
他本身已经可以让我们发笑啦
they’re just saying the baby is already funny.
这一点儿都不公平
Well, that doesn’t seem fair.
我可爱的肉嘟嘟的小脸 可从来没有让你对我笑过
My adorably chubby cheeks never make you laugh.
你只会冲着我喊
You just yell at me
我喊你把裤子后面拉上
I yell at you to pull your pants back up.
你不能在医院给人露屁股 “碰撞”
You can’t moon people in the hospital, Crash.
把这句话留给贾金斯先生说吧
Tell that to Mr Jenkins.
病院长袍的屁股后面的带子有点松 我不喜欢
The ties in hospitalget too loosely from my liking.
优越论解释了为什么我们会在别人出糗时发笑
The Superiority Theory explains why we laugh when someone embarasses themselves
或者为什么倒霉鬼总会逗人发笑
or why can be so amusing.
正是这种“还好不是我”的侥幸心理让我们哈哈大笑
It’s that “I’m glad it’s not me” mentality that makes us burst out laughing.
也有其他的理论简单解释为什么这个宝宝的小视频这么好笑
But there are other theories that just easily explains why this clip is so funny.
乖讹论表明当期待产生 然后破灭的时候 幽默就出现了
The Incongruity Theory holds that human arises when an expectation is created than broken.
在小视频中 你可以说
In the same clip, you might say that we laugh because the baby doesn’t react how we expect.
因为宝宝没有做出我们期待的反应 所以我们笑了
大多数宝宝会被盒子里弹出来的小丑吓哭
Most babies cry when they are surprised by the jack in the box.
但这个宝宝只是震惊了一下 然后就冷静下来 好像无事发生过一样
But this baby is shocked and then just returns to his previously calm stay.
他的反应方式也可有趣了:
In a way reacts is fantastic too.
像盒子的小丑一样 他猛的弹了一下 手都伸直了
Spring up like he’s also a jack in box, and stretch his arms out.
最后 我们还有最新的 可能也是最有力的解释理论:
Finally we have the newest and perhaps most rebust explaination.
良性冲突理论
The Benign Violation Theory,
由行为社会学家彼得·麦格劳和凯莱布·沃伦提出
formulated by behavioral scientists Peter McGraw and Caleb Warren.
这一理论宣称 如果某种情况一开始被认为很危险
This theory
实际上却完全没问题 也会使我们发笑
but in actual reality completely safe, caused us to laugh.
换句话说 冲突并不幽默 但良性的冲突是幽默的
In other words, violations aren’t funny, but benign violations are.
小宝宝被吓到的时候 我们不由地笑了
When the bay gets scared, we laugh instictively
因为这种惊奇是无害的
because this suprise is harmless.
这可以追溯到节目开始时放的搞笑视频剪辑
This goes right back to what I was saying about slapstick at the beginning of the episode.
你知道小宝宝这种生物 “文化”!
You never know about baby culture! My years of making people laugh by pooping my pants all over.
我要靠拉裤子来让别人笑的年代已经过去了!
我需要进化 应该做一只喜剧性的麝鼠而不是悲剧性的旅鼠
I need to a bowel.rather than a lemon.
奇怪的动物剧场 兄弟
In weird animal show, buddy.
我的观点是 如果你想变得更幽默 你得去看看有什么是幽默的
My opinion is that if you want to be funnier, you have to look what’s already funny.
如果你对喜剧发生的形式有基本的理解
If you have a basic understanding of the form that comedy takes,
你就可以复制它 或者以新的 有独创性的方法打破它
the you can either replicate it or break it in new original ways.
对你的话 我们只看基础的部分就可以了
For you, let’s just focus on the basics.
哇! 我特意给你弄了个笑料梗 你居然往我脸上吐口水
Wow, I nearlyspit in my face.
现在先不说肢体性喜剧
Putting aside physical humour for the moment,
幽默的经典原型是笑话
the classic of humour is the joke, comprised of a set-up and a punchline.
它由铺垫和包袱组成
笑话可以体现幽默的乖讹理论
Jokes work off of humour
制造一种期待 然后打破它
created an expectation and break it.
比如 用下面的“世界上最好笑的笑话”举例子
For example, take this joke,The World’s Funniest Joke
它来自于一个叫笑话实验室的在线实验
by an online experiment called laugh land
实验室收集了网民们放上去的超过4万个笑话
which read it over 40,000 jokes by public opinion.
“碰撞” 你来说剩下的
Crash, I’ll let you do the others.
两个猎人去林子里去打猎 其中一个突然倒下了
Two hunters are out in the woods when one of them collapses.
他看上去已经没有呼吸了 双眼也呆滞无神
He doesn’t seem to be breathing and his eyes are glazed over.
另一个人赶紧拿出他的手机 拨打紧急求助电话
The other guy whips out his phone and calls the emergency services
他喘着气说 “我朋友死了!我……我该怎么办?”
He gasps, “My friend is dead! What, what can I do?”
接线员说 “先冷静一下 我可以帮你
The operator says, “Calm down. I can help.
首先 我们要确认你朋友确实已经死了”
First, let’s make sure he’s dead.”
一阵沉默 接着响起了一下枪声
There is a silence; then a gunshot is heard.
再次拿起电话时 这个人说 “好了 然后呢?”
Back on the phone, the guy says, “Okay, now what?”
是的 是的 我应该先解释一下
Yeah yeah, I should’ve also explained the joke so way less funny when you puffed them by saying that they are the funniest joke ever.
当你吹嘘说这是世界上最好笑的笑话时
这个笑话就没那么搞笑了
但这里要解释的点在于“确认他死亡”这句话 它可以有两种解释
But the point is the phrase “Make sure he’s dead” can be take two ways.
我们本来期待得到一种 然而得到了另一种 因此 我们笑了
We expect one meaning but get the other. Hence, we laugh.
我们也有其它类型的预先制作好的笑话
We have other types of cat humour as well.
不论当时的背景如何 都可以拿出预先写好的材料
Pre regardless of the context.
比如说 谜语 它对简单的问题有未定的答案
Take riddles for example, which have unexpected answers to simple questions.
比你在苹果里发现一条虫子更糟糕的是什么?
What worse than finding a worm in your apple?
发现半条虫子
Finding half a worm.
或者叫冷笑话
Or so-called anti-jokes,
利用你对常见笑话的了解来逗你发笑
the play on your knowledge of common jokes to get you laugh.
比你在苹果里发现一条虫子更糟糕的是什么?
What’s worse than finding a worm in your apple?
大灾难
– The holocaust.- Very funny, I know.
非常有趣 我知道
当然 这个经典的小笑话将铺垫和包袱合为了一个部分
And of course the classic one linein one section.
太失败了 这是欺诈!
Fell through, what a rip-off.
我们也有一句话短笑话的反例:长毛狗故事
And then we have quite the opposite of one line-up: the shaggy dog story.
我无意让你忍耐着听完 “碰撞”
I’m not going to make you sit through Crash telling one of these long winded stories
我不会去讲这个笑料令人失望又罗里吧嗦的故事
with disappointing punchline,
如果你们需要实例 可以在YouTube上搜索“Norm MacDonald Moth Joke”
but if you want an example, search “Norm MacDonald Moth Joke” on YouTube.
请在视频播完之后再去搜索
After this video though. Don’t go now, please. Don’t go now.
现在请不要走开 请不要走开
我们无尽感激
We love you so much.
你散发着绝望的气味 “碰撞” 我说字面上的
You eraque desperation, Crash, and I mean that literally.
一种腋臭和洗剂混合的味道
This spells a combination of bo and lotion.
不过 知道笑话只能让你走到这一步
我们大多数日常的笑声来源于突发性的事件
Most of our day-to-day laughter drives from spontaneous causes.
这很容易理解 如果喜剧来自于打破期待
That makes a lot of sense. If comedies is all about breaking expections,
那当某人告诉你他要讲一件特别好笑的事 然后开始滔滔不绝
then when someone tells you that they’re gonna tell you something funny, and they tell you something funny
你其实隐隐有期待这个事情会很好笑 因此实际上就没有那么好笑了
you’re already expected it to be funny, so therefore it’s less fun.
你理解了吗?
– Does that make sense?- So how will I be funny without telling jokes?
要是不讲笑话的话 我怎么能变幽默呢?
偷别人东西是我唯一知道如何自发性做的事
Giving other people materials all I know
自发性来自于上下文语境
Spontaneity derives from context.
关注你的周围 你的处境 你所共事的人 他们在说什么
Be aware of your surroundings, your situation and people you are with, and what they’re saying
利用在这些事物里的荒谬性
and capitalise on
与康德式幽默不同 康德式幽默通常是一种完全的无后果的幽默
Unlike
而这种对话式的幽默并没有打破互动的流畅性
this conversational humour doesn’t break the flow of interaction, and feels more natural.
会感觉更自然
用妙语举例
Take quips for example.
单独的用来搞笑的句子 也有其意义
Single sentences that are meant to be funny, but also have meaning.
假如你去跟一个皱眉的人讲话
I gave you a frowning person.
皱眉需要调动脸部的42块肌肉 而开枪只需要4块
It takes 42 muscles to frown, but only 4 to pull the trigger.
可怕的信息 不过是一个好例子
Terrible message, but good example.
这是“高兴点”的一种更有趣的说法
It’s a funnier way of saying cheer up
但它与情况密切相关 并推动了对话的进行
but it’s organic to the situation, and makes the conversation forward.
另一个为对话增添幽默感的经典方法
Another classic way to wave humour into your conversations is using stylistic figures,
是使用修辞手法
比如明喻 暗喻 夸张 和反讽
like similes, metaphors, hyperbole and irony.
你像个犹太女裁缝一样使用你的幽默感
You wave humour like a Jew seems stress.
谢谢你”碰撞” 你的明喻真是创造力的彩虹
Thanks Crash. Your similes are a rainbow of creativity.
这是你能提出的最好的反击吗?
That’s the best you can come up with?
你的暗喻让我想往耳朵里面灌硫酸
Your metaphors make me want to feed my ears with of gasolines
拿你开玩笑呢 这个不是暗喻的例子 这个是反讽的例子
Jokes It wasn’t an example of metaphor; it was an example of irony,
尽管注意的是反讽并不一定是负面的
although it is worth noting that irony doesn’t have to be negative.
负面的反讽可以更简洁地称为讽刺
Negative irony can be because of sarcasm
但反讽所需要的只是言语与言外之意之间的矛盾
but all that’s required for irony is a contradiction between what is said and what is meant
或言语与真实情况之间的矛盾
or what is said and what is real.
就像我有一条藏獒叫小甜甜一样
正因为如此 我们才有了更高级的语言喜剧
Precisely. Then we have more advanced comedy,
比如双关语 语义扭曲和语域冲突
like puns, distortions and register clashes.
这些都采用常见的短语
All of these take common phrases and idioms and twist their meanings to create humor.
并扭曲它们的意思 以此来产生幽默
典型的文化认为喜剧是一粒盐
They
一片柠檬和一杯龙舌兰
a slice of lemon and a bottle of tequila.
这是一个双关语的例子
Some
然而 真实对话里的幽默通常来来回回地产生
true conversational humor, however, derives from back and forth.
反驳者让应答者创建一个幽默语句 与前一个语句配对
Retorts
而我们现在叫这个为回归
Of course, nowadays we call this a comback
比如阿斯特夫人和温斯顿·丘吉尔一次对话里的机锋
温斯顿 如果你是我丈夫 我一定会把毒药下在你的咖啡里
– Winston, if you were my husband, I’d put posion in your coffee.- Nancy, if you were my wife, I’d drink it.
南希 如果你是我太太 我会喝了它
当然 如果反驳是以打趣的方式说出来 那就是戏弄
Of course if the retort is set up in a playful way, it’s teasing.
戏弄仍具有攻击或侮辱的性质
Teasing stall has an attacking or assaulting nature to it, but it’s said in a joking manner.
但却是以一种来玩笑的方式说出来的
这也是一种调情的经典方式
It’s a classic way for people to flirt.
你怎么会说我是地球上的污点
How could you tell me that because I swallowed your house key that one time?
就因为有一次我吞了你的房钥匙呢?
我知道的 你只是开玩笑
我确实说了你是地球上的一个污点
I actually said you were a after I spent 10 minutes
因为我花了10分钟筛查你的大便之后
才发现你所谓的“吞了钥匙”不过是撒谎
only to find out you lied about swallowing the key.
抓到他了!
– Got him!- It does raise the question though: when does a tease become a put down ?
这里确实提出了一个问题:
什么时候取笑变成贬低
或者直截了当的侮辱呢?
Or a put down straight up to insult?
什么时候事情不再是搞笑而是冒犯了呢?
When does something stop being funny and start being offensive?
抢答:使用“冒犯”这个词对我具有微进攻性
Triggered: using the word offensive as micro aggressive for me
因为它会让我想起冒犯的事情 但你还是选择说出来
as it reminds me of the offensive days yet you chose to say it anyway.
是的 但我使用的语境不一样 这是一个谈论哪些事物应该被认为是冒犯性的语境中
Yeah, but I was using it in a context of discussion about what should be considered offensive.
想当然 没有问题
– Surely, that’s alright.- No, it offended me, that means it’s not alright.
不 这冒犯到我了 才不是没问题
幸运的是 我知道“碰撞”是在开玩笑
Luckily I know Crash is kidding.
但每个人心中都有一条关于什么是冒犯的线
But everyone has their own line of what makes something offensive,
这是完全主观性的
and it’s entirely subjective.
甚至因为情境的不同 即使是同一个对象 也会有所变化
It might even change for a given person depending on the context.
在一个单口相声喜剧节目中 表演者可以充分运用黑色幽默
In a stand-up comedy routine, a comedian might get away with some pretty dark humour.
在搞笑庆祝会这样的环境 对某个人物的吐槽或自嘲是被欢迎的
这样喜剧表演者会有更多的回旋余地
但在一个疾病募捐会上
比方说 多发性硬化症
喜剧表演者最好小心如何处理这个话题
正如我们在本期视频中所说的 什么是艺术
艺术是主体 观察者和语境之间的关系
我相信这对于喜剧来说也是真的
喜剧表演者的意图很重要 观察员的解释很重要 环境也很重要
不 别再弄严肃的喜剧了 “文化”
喜剧的本意是有趣 愚蠢和轻浮的
是吧 我说的是轻浮?
不只有你知道华美的词藻
你知道吗 “碰撞” 你完全说正确了
有时候喜剧仅仅是荒诞的
例如 一些没有任何上下文的单词
对我们来说本身就是有趣的
来自华威大学的心理学讲师托马斯·恩格尔·费拉的一份研究报告
收集了4997个不同的英语单词
让受访者根据搞笑程度对它们进行排名
排名前十从最少到最搞笑的词分别是
书呆子 击打 嘘嘘 像鸭子一样摇摆 傻瓜
笨蛋 鼻子或乳房 大笨蛋 蠢货
以及 屁股
快忘了屁股!
去掉屁股
我们可以弄得甚至比它们这样更有趣
简单的辅音也可以是有趣的
喜剧普遍认为k音比较好笑
我们大多数的骂人的话都有k硬音
理论上说 我们可以更有力地发这些硬音
这样会使它们更好笑
例如
没——门 你现在闭嘴
但即便如此 这也只适用于说英语的情况
那有没有哪种幽默涉及老年人 笨蛋
或者是你可以为任何人表演的系列笑话
而他们会觉得好笑呢?
相关性是所有笑话的核心
如果你不能与喜剧产生共鸣
那么你不会笑 或至少没有笑到那种程度
#幽默通常与分享经验联系在一起#
#就像 一个男人站起来说#
#你们有注意到公共厕所#
#真的有低效的干手机吗?#
#噢天哪 是的 我有注意到#
#哈哈哈 观察得真好#
他们应该修好……
#知道终于有人能理解我 感觉真爽#
#因为我妻子和我离婚了#
#这潜意识里迫使我#
#完全丧失自我意识#
#所以 想想烘干机就好了#
#而不是那个出轨的妓女#
那么老年人能理解什么样的笑话呢?
很简单
厕所幽默
我们都是人类 都有身体机能
如果有人放屁 那我们肯定发笑 至少也会微笑
除非你和放屁的人被一起困在车里
在这种情况下 放屁不再是良性冲突
而且严重的威胁
所以 在解释这么多之后 通俗喜剧的秘诀就是
坚持做我一直在做的事
我想在某种混乱的情况下 是的
但这里还有太多别的东西 我甚至无法恰当地描述
这是上千名喜剧表演者和哲学家
花费几年时间所研究的成果
我们这里讨论的只是幽默产生理论一个很小的部分
为表明幽默与非幽默之间的界线是多么模糊
我给大家带来一段“大笑瑜伽”的视频
大笑瑜伽是强迫自己对不搞笑的话题发出笑声
但事实上 他们在笑的情况本身就是搞笑的
如果你能明白 那将对你有所帮助
我被诊断了帕金森病
非常好 特别棒 耶
我叫维奇
我有乳癌
有人觉得我超重
有时候我特别恐惧会花光钱
我有关节炎和糖尿病
我们下周再见!
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视频概述

是什么让事情变得“有趣”? 有没有什么东西客观上是有趣的,跨越所有的民族,而不是完全依赖于语言? 文化与碰撞在这一集讨论的主题

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

老王家隔壁

审核员

审核员XY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H6_Nrmp0jNQ

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