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什么是squillo,为什么歌剧演唱者需要它? – 译学馆
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什么是squillo,为什么歌剧演唱者需要它?

What’s a squillo, and why do opera singers need it? - Ming Luke

歌唱表达自我 歌唱成就自我 ——玛丽亚·卡拉斯 著名女高音歌唱家
Gripped with vengeful passion,
满怀近乎忿恨的激情
The Queen of the Night tears across the stage.
夜后匆匆走过舞台
She begins to sing her titular aria,
唱起了以“夜后”为名的咏叹调
one of the most famous sections from
这是莫扎特极富盛名的歌剧
Mozart’s beloved opera, “The Magic Flute.”
《魔笛》中最有名的片段之一
The orchestra fills the hall with music,
整个歌剧厅里都是管弦乐队的乐声
but the queen’s voice soars above the instruments.
但夜后的歌声比乐器的声音更响亮
Its melody rings out across thousands of patrons,
唱出的旋律穿过数千名观众
reaching seats 40 meters away—
传到40米之外的观众席
all without any assistance from a microphone.
这可是完全没有用麦克风扩音的
How is it possible that this single voice
一个人的声音怎么可能
can be heard so clearly,
比几十件乐器的声音还要响亮
above the strains of dozens of instruments?
能够清晰地传到观众耳朵里?
The answer lies in the physics of the human voice,
这跟人声的物理属性
and the carefully honed technique
以及专业歌剧演唱家们
of an expert opera singer.
经过训练的精湛技巧有关
All the music in this opera house originates from
歌剧厅里所有的音乐
the vibrations created by instruments—
都源自“乐器”所产生的振动
whether it’s the strings of a violin
小提琴的弦
or the vocal folds of a performer.
和表演者的声带都是“乐器”
These vibrations send waves into the air,
这些振动将声波传到空气里
which our brains interpret as sound.
我们的大脑将其识别为声音
The frequency of these vibrations––
振动的频率
specifically, the number of waves per second––
也就是每秒的声波数
is how our brains determine the pitch of a single note.
是大脑判断一个音符的音高的依据
But in fact, every note we hear
但实际上 我们听到的每个音符
is actually a combination of multiple vibrations.
都是多重振动的组合
Imagine a guitar string vibrating at its lowest frequency.
脑补一下 吉他弦以最低频率振动
This is called the fundamental,
这就是“基音”
and this low pitch is what our ears
我们的耳朵大多数时候
mostly use to identify a note.
都用这个低音来鉴定音符
But this lowest vibration
但这个最低频的振动
triggers additional frequencies
会触发额外的振动频率
called overtones,
也就是“泛音”
which layer on top of the fundamental.
泛音会叠加在基音之上
These overtones break down into specific frequencies
而泛音又可以分解为各种频率
called harmonics, or partials—
也就是“分音”
and manipulating them
歌唱家们能施展魔法
is how opera singers work their magic.
靠的就是对分音的熟练掌控
Every note has a set of frequencies
每个音符都有
that comprise its harmonic series.
由一组频率构成的“分音列”
The first partial vibrates at twice the frequency
第一个分音的振动频率
of the fundamental.
是基音的2倍
The next partial is three times
下一个分音的振动频率
the fundamental’s frequency, and so on.
是基音的3倍 以此类推
Virtually all acoustic instruments
几乎所有的声学乐器
produce harmonic series,
都能生成分音列
but each instrument’s shape and material
但不同乐器的形状和材质不同
changes the balance of its harmonics.
所发出的分音平衡度也不同
For example, a flute emphasizes the first few partials,
比如说 长笛突出前几个分音
but in a clarinet’s lowest register,
而在单簧管的最低音区
the odd-numbered partials resonate most strongly.
奇数分音共振最强
The strength of various partials
从一定程度上来说
is part of what gives each instrument
不一样的分音强度
its unique sonic signature.
赋予了每个乐器独特的声学特质
It also affects an instrument’s ability
也对一件乐器能不能脱颖而出
to stand out in a crowd,
有一定影响
because our ears are more strongly attuned to some frequencies than others.
因为我们的耳朵更偏爱某些频率
This is the key to an opera singer’s power of projection.
这就是歌剧演唱家发声的关键
An operatic soprano—
唱歌剧的女高音
the highest of the four standard voice parts—
(四种基本声部中音最高的)
can produce notes with fundamental frequencies
唱出的音符
ranging from 250 to 1,500 vibrations per second.
有每秒250到1500次的基音频率振幅
Human ears are most sensitive to frequencies between 2,000
人耳对每秒2000到5000次的振动
and 5,000 vibrations per second.
最为敏感
So if the singer can bring out
所以 如果歌唱家能够发出
the partials in this range,
在这个范围内的分音
she can target a sensory sweet spot
她就能够针对最敏感的感官
where she’s most likely to be heard.
发出最容易被听到的声音
Higher partials are also advantageous
能唱到更高的分音也是个优势
because there’s less competition from the orchestra,
因为在这个频率范围内
whose overtones are weaker
管弦乐器发出的泛音是比较弱的
at those frequencies.
不会干扰歌唱家的声音
The result of emphasizing these partials
强化这些分音
is a distinctive ringing timbre
会产生一种独特的响亮音色
called a singer’s squillo.
我们称之为歌唱家的“squillo”
Opera singers work for decades
为了唱出squillo
to create their squillo.
歌剧演唱家们会苦练好几十年
They can produce higher frequencies by modifying the shape and tension
通过调整声带和声道的形状和张力
in their vocal folds and vocal tract.
她们能发出频率更高的声音
And by shifting the position of their tongues and lips,
通过调整舌头和嘴唇的位置
they accentuate some overtones
她们能够强化一部分泛音
while dampening others.
弱化另一部分泛音
Singers also increase their range of partials
歌唱家们还会利用颤音
with vibrato—
拓展分音音域
a musical effect in which a note slightly
颤音是一个音符的音高上下摇摆
oscillates in pitch.
所产生的音效
This creates a fuller sound that rings out
颤音使声音更加饱满
over the instruments’ comparatively narrow vibratos.
超越相对较窄的乐器颤音音域
Once they have the right partials,
找到了合适的分音之后
they employ other techniques to boost their volume.
她们会采用其他技巧提高音量
Singers expand their lung capacity
歌唱家们会增加肺活量
and perfect their posture
找到完美的姿势
for consistent, controlled airflow.
以持久掌控气流
The concert hall helps as well,
音乐厅也本身也是助攻
with rigid surfaces that
厅内的刚性墙面
reflect sound waves towards the audience.
能将声波反射到观众席
All singers take advantage of these techniques,
所有的歌唱家们都会利用好这些技巧
but different vocal signatures
但不同的曲目
demand different physical preparation.
所需的前期身体训练也不同
A Wagnerian singer needs to build up stamina
唱瓦格纳作品的歌唱家要锻炼耐力
to power through the composer’s four-hour epics.
撑过作曲家4小时的鸿篇巨制
While bel canto singers
而唱美声的歌唱家
require versatile vocal folds
声带要灵活多变
to vault through acrobatic arias.
像耍杂技那样唱咏叹调
Biology also sets some limits—
但生理方面也会有限制
not every technique is feasible for every set of muscles,
不是每组肌肉都能做到这些技巧的
and voices change as singers age.
而且随着歌唱家年龄增长 声音会变
But whether in an opera hall or a shower stall,
但不管是在歌剧厅还是淋浴间里
these techniques can turn un-amplified voices
这些技巧都能将没有被放大的声音
into thundering musical masterpieces.
变成雷鸣般的音乐杰作
Guitar masters are capable of bending
吉他大师能根据自己的意愿
the physics of sound waves to their wills,
改变声波的物理状态
plucking melody from inspiration and vibration.
同时利用灵感和振动拨弹出旋律
Check out this video to learn more about the physics of the guitar.
来看看这个视频 了解更多有关吉他物理属性的内容吧

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视频概述

解释了女高音歌唱家为何能唱出响亮的歌声。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PKengo7y28U

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