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智能手机的使用带来了什么

What’s a smartphone made of? - Kim Preshoff

Cell phones are so convinent that they’re an inconvenience.
手机太方便了 因此对我们造成了不便
As of 2018, there are around 2.5 billion smartphone users in the world.
截至2018年 全球约有25亿智能手机用户
If we broke open all their newest phones,
假如拆开一些最新款智能手机
which are just a fraction of the total that’ve been built,
这些手机不过是冰山一角
and split them into their component parts,
然后把它们拆分成零件
that would produce around 85,000 kilograms of gold,
会得到约八万五千克的黄金
875,000 of silver, and 40 million kilograms of copper.
八十七万五千克银和四百万千克铜
How did this precious cache get into our phones,
手机里这些宝贵的金属有什么用
and can we reclaim it?
我们又能否回收再利用它们呢?
Gold, silver, and copper are actually just a few
实际上金 银和铜仅仅是普通智能机里
of the 70 or so chemical elements that make up the average smartphone.
七十多种化学元素的一小部分
These can be divided into different groups,
这些元素可划分成不同的类别
two of the most critical being rare earth elements and precious metals.
其中稀土元素和贵金属最重要
Rare earths are a selection of 17 elements that are actually common in Earth’s crust
稀土包含地壳里常见的十七种元素
and are found in many areas across the world in low concentrations.
且世界上很多地区都含有少量的稀土元素
These elements have a huge range of magnetic,phosphorescent,and conductive properties
这些元素具有极好的磁性 磷光性和导电性能
that make them crucial to modern technologies.
因此对现代科学技术十分重要
In fact, of the 17 types of rare earth metals,
实际上 这十七种稀土元素中
phones and other electronics may contain up to 16.
手机和其他电器使用的就多达十六种
In smartphones, these create the screen and color display, aid conductivity,
在智能手机中 它们构成了屏幕和辅助彩色显示 并辅助导电
and produce the signature vibrations,amongst other things.
也提供了独一无二的振动性能
And yet, crucial as they are,
目前 这些元素很重要
extracting these elements from the earth is linked to some disturbing environmental impacts.
但从土壤中提取它们 会对环境造成十分严重的破坏
Rare earth elements can often be found, but in many areas,
稀土元素虽然很常见 但很多地区含量很低
it’s not economically feasible to extract them due to low concentrations.
想要低成本获取是行不通的
Much of the time, extracting them requires a method called open pit mining
大多情况下 这些元素需要露天开采
that exposes vast areas of land.
使大片土地层裸露在外
This form of mining destroys huge swaths of natural habitats,
这种开采方式摧毁了大片自然栖息地
and causes air and water pollution,
导致了空气污染和水污染
threatening the health of nearby communities.
也威胁着附近社区居民的健康
Another group of ingredients in smartphones
而智能手机中另一类元素
comes with similar environmental risks:
同样也带来了环境污染
these are metals such as copper,silver,palladium,aluminum,platinum,tungsten,tin,lead and gold
就是铜 银 钯 铝 铂 钨 锡 铅和金这类金属
We also mine magnesium,lithium,silica,and potassium to make phones,
我们同时也会开采镁 锂 硅和钾用来制造手机
and all of it is associated with vast habitat destruction,
所有的开采都破坏了大量栖息地
as well as air and water pollution.
同样也导致了空气和水污染
Mining comes with worrying social problems, too,
这也带来了令人担忧的社会问题
like large-scale human and animal displacement to make way for industrial operations,
比如为了加快工业生产 大规模的人和动物流离失所
and frequently, poor working conditions for laborers.
而且 工人的工作条件通常也很差
Lastly, phone production also requires petroleum,
而且 手机的生产还需要开采石油
one of the main drivers of climate change.
也就是气候变化的元凶之一
That entwines our smartphones inextricably with this growing planetary conundrum.
智能机的使用和全球问题无可避免地联系在一起
And, what’s more,the ingredients we mine to make our phones aren’t infinite.
更严重的是 用来造手机而开采的元素有限
One day, they’ll simply run out,
总有一天 它们会被用光
and we haven’t yet discovered effective replacements for some.
并且我们也没有发现有效的替代物
Despite this,the number of smartphones is on a steady increase;
尽管如此 智能手机的数量仍在稳定增长
by 2019 it’s predicted that there’ll be close to 3 billion in use.
到2019年 预计智能机数量逼近30亿
This means that reclaiming the bounty within our phones is swiftly becoming a necessity.
这意味着我们必须开始回收再利用
So, if you have an old phone, you might want to consider your options before throwing it away.
所以 如果你有一部旧手机 应该在扔掉它之前好好考虑一下
To minimize waste, you could donate it to a charity for reuse,
为了最大程度地减少浪费 应该将其捐赠给慈善机构来重复使用
take it to an e-waste recycling facility,
送到电子废物回收组织
or look for a company that refurbishes old models.
或者找一家翻新旧型号手机的公司来翻新
However, even recycling companies need our scrutiny.
但是 即使是回收公司也需要审查
Just as the production of smartphones comes with social and environmental problems,
就像智能手机的生产带来了社会和环境问题一样
dismantling them does too.
拆除手机同样会带来危害
E-waste is sometimes intentionally exported to countries
电子垃圾有时会故意出口到其他国家
where labor is cheap but working conditions are poor.
那里劳动力低廉 工作条件差
Vast workforces, often made up of women and children,
庞大的劳动力 通常由妇女和儿童组成
may be underpaid, lack the training to safely disassemble phones,
他们工资很低 且缺乏安全拆卸手机的培训
and be exposed to elements like lead and mercury,
他们暴露在铅和汞等元素的环境中工作
which can permanently damage their nervous systems.
意味着 将永久破坏他们的神经系统
Phone waste can also end up in huge dump sites,
手机废料被扔到巨大的垃圾场
leaching toxic chemicals into the soil and water,
里面的有毒化学物质浸入土壤和水中
mirroring the problems of the mines where the elements originated.
产生元素富集的问题
A phone is much more than it appears to be on the surface.
而且手机远不止表面上看起来那么简单
It’s an assemblage of elements from multiple countries,
多个国家参与了产品的制作流程
linked to impacts that are unfolding on a global scale.
全球动态都会对其造成影响
So, until someone invents a completely sustainable smartphone,
所以 除非有人发明了完全可持续使用的智能手机
we’ll need to come to terms with how this technology
我们必须接受这项技术
affects widespread places and people.
将影响更多人类及地区

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视频概述

介绍了智能手机用的稀土和贵金属以及带来的影响

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eIdJ22AfsO8

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