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什么是飓风?

What's a Hurricane?

我和Squeaks住的地方现在是夏天 这意味着我们最近有很多雷雨
It’s summer where Squeaks and I live, which means we’ve had a lot of thunderstorms lately!
夏季雷暴雨通常有雨 雷 和闪电 有时伴有强烈阵风
Summer thunderstorms usually have rain, thunder, and lightning, and sometimes strong, gusty winds.
有时甚至会停电!
Sometimes the power even goes out!
好在我和Squeaks在这里放了个手电筒 谨防万一
Good thing Squeaks and I keep a flashlight here just in case!
但是世界上的某些地区会经历一种非常极端的风暴:飓风
But some areas of the world experience a really extreme kind of storm: a hurricane.
飓风是强大的 有巨大力量的风暴 带有强风
Hurricanes are big, powerful storms that have strong winds.
我说的强是指 要被衡量为一场飓风 风速必须
And I mean strong— In order to be considered a hurricane, a storm’s winds have to be
超过119千米每时
blowing faster than 119 kilometers an hour.
这比在公路上飞驰的汽车还要快
That’s faster than a car zooming down the highway!
有时你也会听到这种风暴被称为旋风或台风 但它们
Sometimes you’ll also hear this kind of storm called a cyclone or a typhoon, but they’re
只不过是同一个东西的别称
just different names for the same thing.
从外太空看 许多飓风都是这样的:大的 旋转的风暴
From outer space, many hurricanes look like this: big, swirling storms that have a really
形状很酷
cool shape.
(Squeaks的吱吱声)
[Squeaks squeaks]
对 Squeaks 这飓风看起来就像一个圆圈
That’s right, Squeaks, this hurricane looks kind of like a circle!
云围绕着飓风中央一个叫做 “飓风眼”的地方翻卷
The clouds wind around a space in the center of the hurricane, called the eye.
它看起来甚至有点像个眼球
It even sort of looks like an eyeball!
好了 飓风的形状很酷 但这并不是这种风暴
Now, a hurricane’s shape is pretty cool, but it’s not the only thing that’s special
唯一的特殊之处
about this kind of storm.
所有东西都要刚刚好 才能形成一场飓风
Everything has to be just right for a hurricane to form.
这有点像个拼图
It’s kind of like a puzzle.
所有的部件都必须完备 并且必须以正确的方式组合在一起
All of the pieces have to be there, and have to fit together in exactly the right way,
不然飓风就不会形成
or a hurricane won’t form.
飓风拼图的第一部分是温暖的海水
The first piece of the hurricane puzzle is warm ocean water.
水必须至少达到27摄氏度 或者说 和游泳池水一样温暖
The water has to be at least 27 degrees Celsius, or about as warm as a swimming pool, for a
才能形成一场飓风
hurricane to form.
温暖的海水使其上方的空气变暖 水蒸气上升到空中
The warm water causes the air above it to warm up and rise high into the sky
温暖的空气很潮湿 这意味着里面有很多水
The warm air very humid, which means that there’s a lot of water in it.
温暖潮湿的空气从下方温暖的水里上升到空中
This warm, moist air rises high into the sky from the warm water below.
当水汽上升到天空时 其他的空气就会涌入 取代它原来的位置
As the air rises into the sky, other air rushes in to take its place.
涌入的空气也会变得温暖潮湿 然后也会上升到高空
The air that rushes in gets warm and humid, too, and then it rises high into the sky as well.
随着空气的上升 它变冷了 云也开始形成 很多云!
As the air rises, it cools, and clouds start to form—lots of them!
在高空中 我们发现了第二件重要的事情
High in the sky is also where we find the second thing that’s important for making
那就是飓风形成的第二个要素 风
a hurricane: wind.
并不是任意的风
And not just any wind.
帮助制造飓风的风必须是平静稳定的
The wind that helps make a hurricane has to be calm and steady.
它不能是那种狂刮了一段时间 然后
It can’t be the kind of wind that blows really hard for a moment or two, then calms
再平静下来的风
down again.
如果有像那样的突发阵风 风暴会被刮开 就像蜡烛那样
If there are sudden gusts like that, the storm can get blown apart, like how a candle gets
被吹灭
blown out.
但是如果有温暖潮湿的空气 加上这些稳定的风 它就会
But if there’s warm, damp air along with those steady winds, and it stays like that
像这样保持几天 然后剩下组成飓风的部分依序排列
for a few days, the rest of the pieces that make up a hurricane fall into place.
稳定的风将形成中的风暴推到海洋上 温暖的水汽给予风暴能量
The steady winds push the growing storm over the ocean, and the warm water gives the storm energy.
这让更多的水汽上升 更多的云形成 也让飓风内部的风
It causes more air to rise, more clouds to form, and the winds inside the hurricane to
变得更强大
become stronger.
实际上 唯一风力不那么大的地方 就是飓风眼
In fact, the only place that it’s not very windy is the hurricane’s eye.
飓风眼中其实很平静 即使它在风暴的正中间!
It’s actually very calm in the eye — even though it’s right in the middle of the storm!
飓风慢慢扩大 也开始旋转
As it grows, the hurricane also starts to turn.
它不断旋转 而飓风眼在其中心 有点像个陀螺
It spins around, with the eye in the center, kind of like a top.
只要飓风有温暖的水汽给它充能 它们就会一直行进 并且不断壮大!
As long as hurricanes have that warm air for fuel, they can keep going … and keep growing!
但是当它们到达陆地 或者经过较冷的空气时 它们失去了暖空气 所以它们开始
But when they reach land, or pass over cooler water, they lose their warm air, so they start
瓦解
to fall apart.
尽管如此 飓风还是留下许多雨水
Hurricanes usually leave behind a lot of rain, though.
有时雨会下上好几天
Sometimes the rain can last for days!
雨水也能将海水冲上海岸 造成大洪水
They also can push a lot of ocean water onto the shore, which can cause a lot of floods.
但是人们可以针对飓风做准备 如果知道飓风何时发生的话
But people can prepare for hurricanes, especially if they know when they’re going to happen.
举个例子 大多数靠近北美的飓风发生在每年的五月和十一月
For example, most hurricanes near North America happen between May and November every year,
因为这是飓风拼图的不同部分拼合在一起的最佳时机
because that’s when the different pieces that make a hurricane fit together the best.
科学家们也有很多工具可以追踪飓风 他们利用自己
And scientists have lots of tools to try and track hurricanes — they use what they know
关于科学的学识 来准确预测飓风将在哪里出现
about science to make really good guesses about where they’ll pop up, where they’ll
去往哪里 会有多大 以及它们会持续多久
go, how big they’ll be, and how long they’ll last.
在一些飓风经常发生的地区 他们经常以特殊方式建造建筑物
In places where hurricanes happen a lot, they usually build buildings in special ways so
以防它们被强风或洪水破坏
they won’t get damaged by the strong winds or flooding water.
如果你住在飓风多发地区 或者要去那种地方度假 你也可以有所准备!
And if you live or go on vacation in a place where hurricanes might happen, you can be prepared, too!
你可以与大人们讨论 在飓风来临时你能做些什么
You can talk to grownups about what you can do if a hurricane happens.
你的准备可能是 比如说把外面的东西带回来 保护它们不受强风破坏
That might mean like bringing in things from outside to protect them from strong winds,
或者是帮忙准备一些装备 带有水和食物 手电筒 以及一个收音机
or it might mean helping to prepare a kit with food and water, flashlights, and a radio.
说到手电筒 我知道我的
Speaking of flashlights, I know mine could
装上几个新电池就能用
use some new batteries.
来吧 Squeaks 我们去商店
C’mon, Squeaks, let’s go to the store.
谢谢收看本集Scishow Kids!
Thanks for joining us for this episode of SciShow Kids!
如果你想与我和Squeaks一起学习玩耍 你可以点击订阅按钮
If you wanna keep learning and having fun with Squeaks and me you can click the subscribe button
我们下集再见
and we’ll see you next time

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视频概述

飓风拼图要怎么拼合?孩子们在飓风来临时能做些什么?请收看本期SciShow Kids!:)

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

K.

审核员

嘉言先森

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xKubdY2mHXc

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