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需要了解的关于野火烟雾的知识

What You Need to Know About Wildfire Smoke | SciShow News

[♩INTRO]
[背景音乐]
Last week, the smoke from wildfires in the western US crossed the country.
上周 美国西部森林野火造成的浓烟笼罩了全国
While air has cleared in some areas,
尽管一些地区的浓烟已经散去
fires continue to burn.
但是野火还未被扑灭
And seeing as nasty wildfire seasons are becoming our new normal,
既然恼人的野火季节正成为我们的新日常
it’s unfortunately always a good time to talk about smoke.
那么我们不妨来聊一聊关于烟雾的话题
So this week, we’re giving you the lowdown:
本周 我们将为你们揭开内幕:
what it is, what it does to us,
烟雾是什么 它会对我们造成什么影响
and what you can do to protect yourself when it gets smoky.
以及当烟雾弥漫的时候 你可以做什么来保护自己
Smoke that billows off of a wildfire is actually composed of lots of different things.
野火腾起的烟雾实际上由很多不同的物质组成
It’s mostly water vapor,
烟雾主要是水蒸气
but it also contains gases like carbon monoxide,
但它也包含了诸如一氧化碳的气体
chemicals produced by the flames, and small bits of ash and other particles.
由火焰产生的化学物质 以及小块的灰烬和其他颗粒
In fact, those airborne particles are the main reason smoke is visible;
事实上 那些空气中的颗粒就是烟雾可视的主要原因
if your view is hazy or the sky is a weird color, you can blame the particles.
模糊的视野和怪异的天色可以归咎于那些颗粒
But we don’t judge how bad the air is just by looking at the sky.
但是我们不能只看天空就断定空气是多么的糟糕
Many governments use a measure
很多政府使用一种叫做
called the Air Quality Index or AQI,
空气质量指数(AQI)的测量标准
which is usually a color-coded scale of some sort.
而这种指数通常是有某种色条标志等级的
In the US, the AQI goes from zero to 500 and has six different ranges.
在美国 空气质量指数从0到500有6个不同的范围
And technically, this number can actually reflect
原则上来说 这个数字实际上可以显示
any of five different pollutants:
五种不同污染物中的任何一种
ground-level ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide,
地表臭氧 一氧化碳 二氧化硫 二氧化氮
or airborne particulate matter, usually abbreviated PM.
或者空气传播的悬浮颗粒 也就是通常缩写的PM
Each pollutant gets measured separately;
每种污染物都被分别测量
a value of 100 corresponds to the level
根据国际环境空气质量标准
that’s considered okay for short-term exposure
短时间暴露在数值100以内的空气环境中
by the National Ambient Air Quality Standards.
是没什么问题的
Then, the highest of these is what’s reported.
而这些数值中的最高的污染物会被通报
So AQI reflects whatever is most harmful at the time
因此空气质量指数反映的是当时最有害的污染物
and with smoke, that’s usually that PM,
而就烟雾而言 通常就是悬浮颗粒了
especially small bits less than 2.5 microns in size.
尤其是小于2.5微米的颗粒物
Starting at an AQI of 151,
从空气质量指数151开始
anyone exposed to the air may be harmed,
任何接触到空气的人都可能受到伤害
even people who are otherwise healthy.
即使是原本健康的人
Common reactions to smoke exposure include stinging eyes,
接触烟雾的常见反应包括:眼睛刺痛
scratchy throat, coughing and wheezing, even chest pain.
喉咙沙哑 咳嗽和气喘 甚至胸痛
Or, you might just feel really tired.
或者 你可能只是感到非常疲惫
So if you’ve been in an area with smoke and just don’t feel 100%,
因此如果你处在烟雾笼罩的区域并且感觉不适
that might be part of it.
那可能就是烟雾造成的
The good news is that these effects tend to be short-lived.
好消息是这些身体反应总是短暂的
People generally get better when the air quality improves.
当空气质量改善时 人们一般都会好转
That said, there is a possibility for longer-term harm.
即便如此 烟雾还是可能会造成长期伤害
And that’s because smoke contains a lot of nasty things.
那是因为烟雾含有很多有害物质
But what’s most likely to cause health problems across the country
但最有可能造成全国性健康问题的
are those floating, microscopic particles,
是那些飘浮在空气中的微小颗粒
which can contain some really harmful stuff.
它们可能含有一些非常有害的物质
When breathed in, they can damage or even kill cells and irritate the lungs,
一旦被吸入 它们会损伤甚至杀死细胞 刺激肺部
causing coughing, phlegm, and breathing problems.
造成咳嗽 咯痰和各种呼吸问题
And if they don’t get ousted, they can cause chronic inflammation.
如果它们不被排除体外 就会导致慢性炎症
Essentially, your immune system launches an assault on the foreign material,
基本上 你的免疫系统会对外来入侵物质发起攻击
and in the process, ends up harming your lung tissues.
在这个过程中你的肺部组织最终会受到损伤
These particles may even get into the bloodstream
这些颗粒甚至可能会进入血液中
and set off inflammation elsewhere in the body.
然后在身体的其他部位引发炎症
This is why people with conditions like asthma, COPD,
这也就是为什么有诸如哮喘 慢性阻塞性肺病
and heart disease should be especially careful about smoke exposure;
和心脏病的人应该格外注意烟雾接触的原因
the added inflammation can exacerbate what they’re already dealing with.
额外的炎症会恶化他们已有的病症
And studies have tied wildfire smoke to things like
有研究将野火烟雾
increases in mortality and decreases in birth weights,
与死亡率上升和出生体重下降等问题联系起来
though more research is needed.
不过还需要进行更多研究
Oh, and, not to freak anyone out,
噢 不是吓唬大家
but smoke exposure has also been tied to infectious disease spread later on.
但是烟雾的接触也和之后的传染性疾病的扩散有关
Which isn’t great at the current moment.
而目前传染病的形势不容乐观
Though, a review from 2016 called this evidence “inconsistent”.
尽管一份2016年的报告称这条证据前后矛盾
So, jury is somewhat out on that front.
所以 这方面还没有定论
Still, between the possibility of that
不过 考虑到这种可能性
and long-term health effects,
和对健康的长期影响
it’s probably a good idea to limit exposure.
减少烟雾的接触可能是个好办法
And beyond keeping indoors,
除了待在室内
there are a few things that health and safety agencies recommend for that.
健康和安全部门建议采取一些其他措施
Like, wearing a mask if you do have to go outdoors for prolonged periods
比如 如果你必须长时间外出 需要戴上口罩
though, you’ll need a full on N95 or similar
但是 你需要戴好N95或者类似的口罩
to have it make much of an impact.
才能达到效果
You can also boost the air filtration in your home,
你也可以加强家里的空气过滤
to combat anything that makes it inside.
来净化进入室内的有害空气
If you have a central heating and cooling system,
如果你家中有中央供暖和制冷系统
you might make sure that your filter is up to the task.
你要确保你的过滤器能担此重任
Specifically, you will want to consider the filter’s
具体来说 你要考虑过滤器的
Minimum Efficiency Reporting Value, or MERV rating.
最低效率报告值 或者也叫作MERV等级
With these, higher is better.
有了这个参数 数值越高越好
A MERV rating of 13 or higher is ideal,
最低效率报告值等级13或者更高才是理想的
as that will catch at least 90% of three to 10 micron particles,
因为这样可以捕获至少90% 3至10微米的粒子
and 75% or more of smaller ones.
以及75%及以上的更小的颗粒物
And be sure to actually have the system running,
要确保真正地让整个系统运作起来
even if it’s just on circulate,
哪怕只是换气
so that the filter gets the chance to work.
这样过滤器才有机会来运转
There’s also the option of a free-standing air purifier.
还可以选择独立的空气净化器
For these, you will want a high MERV or a certified HEPA filter.
你需要一个高MERV或者有保证的高效空气过滤器
That means it’s passed a different test
这意味着它通过了各种测试
that ensures it captures 99.97% of particles
确保它能捕获99.97%的
exactly 0.3 microns in size
精确到0.3微米大小的颗粒
so it’s super good at filtering smoke, actually.
因此它确实在过滤烟雾方面效果卓越
You should also check out something called
你还应该检查一下被称为
the “clean air delivery rate” or CADR.
“洁净空气输出率” 也就是CADR的指标
This is essentially how quickly the air passes through the unit.
本质上就是净化器净化空气的速度
The goal is to have the purifier pull the junk out of the air
目的就是让净化器在你吸入空气之前
before you breathe it in,
把空气里的垃圾过滤掉
so you’ll want it to refresh the total volume of the room several times an hour.
所以你需要它能在一小时内净化室内空气好几次
Bigger rooms need bigger CADRs.
房间越大 需要的洁净空气输出率越高
Some purifiers even list rates for different types of pollutants.
一些净化器甚至列出了不同类型污染物的排放速率
Tobacco smoke represents the finest of these,
能过滤香烟的净化器是最好的一种
so look at that if you see it.
所以购买时请认准那个标识
But avoid any filter that says that it uses ozone.
但是不要买号称使用臭氧的过滤器
Remember, ozone’s one of the things AQI looks for
记住 臭氧是空气质量指数的一个指标
it’s actually an irritant in its own right!
实际上臭氧本身就是一种刺激性气体
You can even DIY a purifier in a pinch
在必要的时候 你甚至可以DIY一个净化器
by connecting a high-MERV filter to a box fan!
将高MERV过滤器连接到箱式风扇上
Finally, once you’ve made a clean space,
最后一点 一旦你营造了一个洁净的空间
it’s probably a good idea not to spoil it.
最好不要破坏它
So, you may want to avoid doing things that add to airborne particles,
你要避免做一些增加空气颗粒物的事情
like lighting candles, smoking, using gas stoves, or frying food.
例如 点蜡烛 抽烟 使用煤气灶或者煎炸食品
And that’s the quick and dirty…
以上就是关于野火烟雾的临时应急的
or, hopefully, quick and clean… on wildfire smoke.
或者 希望是快速有效的方法
We hope it helps you breathe a little easier.
我们希望它可以帮助你呼吸得顺畅一点
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow News!
感谢观看本期《科学秀新闻》
And a special shout out to today’s President of Space, Charles Szasz.
特别感谢Charles Szasz 今天的时空会长
We salute you, Charles!
Charles 我们向你致敬
We wouldn’t be able to cover the latest science news
如果没有像Charles那样的赞助商
if it weren’t for patrons like Charles,
我们就无法报道最新的科学新闻
so we’re very grateful for their continued support.
因此 我们十分感激他们持续的支持
If you want to learn more about our awesome patron community
如果你想要理解更多关于我们棒呆了的赞助社区
and how you, too, can become President of Space,
以及你如何也能成为时空会长的话
you can head on over to Patreon.com/SciShow.
你可以前往Patreon.com/SciShow网站进一步了解
[♩OUTRO]
[背景音乐]

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视频概述

关于野火烟雾笼罩时如何进行应急的方法

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