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共鸣——《权力的游戏》的编剧技巧 – 译学馆
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共鸣——《权力的游戏》的编剧技巧

What Writers Should Learn From Game of Thrones

嗨 大家好
Hey, everyone!
这里是Sage
Sage here!
你们马上要观看的是 如何编剧系列视频的第一集
What you’re about to watch is the first in a series of videos about Storytelling.
基本来说 我想要阐明写作的过程
Basically, I want to demystify the writing process
同时向你展示剧作家安排的手法
and show you the tools that are at a writer’s disposal
以及他们如何使用这些工具创作出让你欲罢不能的故事
and how they use them to create stories that stick with you.
我将把这一系列称为
I’m calling this series
《放手去写》
JUST WRITE
如果说人们喜欢《权利的游戏》中的人物
It’d be an understatement to say
那将是一种轻描淡写的说法
that people get attached to the characters in Game of Thrones
“毋戮我民! ”
Stop killing my people!
我们对这些人物可不仅仅是喜爱
We’re not just attached to these characters.
我们为之着魔
We are obsessively in love with them.
不过 乔治·R·R·马丁到底是如何做到这的呢
But how on earth did George R. R.Martin do this?
我想答案就在于
I think the answer is
因为他知晓你在任何一个故事中
because he understands the most important emotion
最需要的情感——
you need in any story——
共鸣
EMPATHY
让观众和你的人物产生共鸣 真是再重要不过了
Making your audience empathize with your characters is absolutely crucial
但这一步骤却常常为人忘记
but it’s a step that is often forgotten.
我是说 有多少你看过的电视剧或是电影
I mean, how many TV shows or movies
让你暗自思忖
have you seen where you’ve thought to yourself
这些人物和我有什么关系
I don’t care about any of these characters.
那就是因为作者忘却了“共鸣”的重要性
That’s because the writers forgot about empathy
而是对于一个故事来说可谓是致命错误
and that is a lethal mistake for a story.
那么就让我们来看看马丁老爷子
So let’s take a look at the techniques
让我们爱上他所创造的角色的诀窍吧
George R.R. Martin uses to get you to care about his characters.
(詹姆·兰尼斯特)为爱而为
Things I do for love.
第一部分 残疾
几乎《权力的游戏》里的每一个主要角色
Almost every major character
都有着自己的“残疾”(缺陷) 当然我不只是说身体上的
in Game of Thrones has a disability and I don’t just mean physical disabilities,
而是小说里任何让角色
but literally anything that puts
在世界上处于永久劣势地位的因素
that character at a seemingly permanent disadvantage in the world.
琼恩·雪诺是一个私生子
Jon Snow is a bastard.
提利昂是个侏儒
Tyrion is a dwarf.
剧中的大多女性因为她们的性别不得不面对无数阻难
Most women in the series face a ton of obstacles because of their gender.
这些问题是他们自身身份的产物
Their problems are a product of their own identities.
是不可改变的事实
Things that can not be changed
而正因此我们会支持他们
and because of that we root for them.
我们渴望看到他们是如何克服这些难以战胜的困难
We want to see how they can overcome the insurmountable.
即便是奈德·史塔克
Even Ned Stark
没有任何身体缺陷 也被故意
who doesn’t have a physical disability is deliberately
安排入一个对他不利的处境
put into situations where he is at a disadvantage.
他是一个恪守荣誉的战士 被迫领命去
He’s an honorable soldier who has to navigate the
代理君临的政务
politics of King’s Landing.
所有他在战场上引以为豪的品格
All of his strengths
在权力斗争中都变为了弱点
on the battlefield are character flaws in this arena
而这就是我们为何会希望他胜利
and that’s why we root
并在最终看到他失败时落泪
for him to succeed and weep when he fails.
第二部分 打击
维斯特洛处处皆有罪大恶极 令人胆寒的人物
Westeros is filled with loads of reprehensible horrible people,
然而马丁却每每让将他们其中的某个角色反转
but every once in a while George R.R. Martin manages to turn one of them
并让我们热烈地喜爱上他
into a character that we care passionately about.
如何做到?不错 这又联系到了第一点
How? Well, it ties into the first point.
故事说到一半 马丁会突然
Midway through the story Martin will
给他制造一个缺陷
thrust a disability onto these characters that takes away
带走他们那一刻前最珍贵的东西
whatever they held most dear before that moment.
詹姆一直以他高超的剑术为傲
Jaime prided himself on his abilities as a swordsman.
那么当然他就失去了他赖以战斗的手
So of course he loses his fighting hand.
“詹姆·兰尼斯特:真是幸运布蕾妮·塔斯:你丢了你的手”
-It’s fortune.-You lost your hand.
“我拿剑的手
My sword hand.
“那只手曾是我的全部”
I was that hand.
“在这种打击下 他很崩溃
And in that stroke, he’s he’s crippled,
“几乎被摧毁
he’s damaged
“于是我们发现原来他所做的一些事是有原因的
and we discover that there are reasons for some of the things he did.
“我们看到他的疑犹 他的弱点 以及
And we discover his doubts and his failings
“他面临的诱惑 与行事的正当理由 还有一切
and his temptations and his justifications and all of that helps to,
“让他人情化的因素”
helps to humanize him.
席恩轻佻好色 而且总想被当作强者
Theon wants cheap sex and to be seen as a strong man.
然而当他被小剥皮阉割后
When he is castrated by Ramsay
他不得不放下他的骄傲 他大男子主义的执念
he has to let go of his ego, his obsession of masculinity
完全没有自我尊严地去侍奉他人
and must act selflessly in service of others.
但若是你让一个我们已经喜欢上的角色
But what happens if you do the same thing
遭遇同样的经历 并与之产生共鸣 会发生什么呢?
to a character that we already like and empathize with?
这样说吧 一句话 他们都领便当了
Well, in a word, they die.
当奈德被捕时
When Ned is arrested
他被迫放弃了他最看重的荣誉 承认自己是个叛徒
He is forced to give up what he values most: his honor and admit that he is a traitor.
可谓是某种形式上的人格自杀
That is a form of character suicide.
在他说出那些话时 他就已经死了
He dies the moment he says these words.
乔弗里判给他的死刑 不过只是一个正式仪式罢了
When King Joffrey has him executed, it’s really just a formality.
说到乔弗里国王
Speaking of King Joffrey,
第三部分 相对性
不得不提到 我们评判人物并不客观
We don’t judge characters objectively.
我们的评判是基于将他们与故事中其他人物的比较之上
We judge them by comparing them to other characters in the story.
我是怎么知道的?
How do I know this?
这个嘛……
Well…
达拉!
Darla!
这是《海底总动员》里的达拉
This is Darla from Finding Nemo.
她不停地摇着袋子
She wouldn’t stop shaking the bag!
你甚至很有可能看到她的照片都感到无比厌恶
Chances are even just showing you a picture of her made you cringe.
一闪一闪亮晶晶……
Twinkle, twinkle little star…
一边去啊
Find a happy place!
一边去啊
Find a happy place!
一边去啊
Find a happy place!
你恨她恨得咬牙切齿 为什么呢?
You hate her with the passion of a thousand suns, and why?
只是因为她弄死几条鱼吗?
Because she killed a few fish?
但别忘了 她还不懂事
But come on, she didn’t know any better.
毕竟只是一个孩子呢
She’s just a kid after all.
不 我们恨她并不是因为她是这世上最可恨的家伙
No, we hate her not because she’s the worst person in the world
而是因为她是《海底总动员》里
but because she’s the worst character
最令人讨厌的角色
in Finding Nemo.
客观来说 詹姆·兰尼斯特
Objectively speaking Jaime Lannister is a
比达拉要糟糕得多
far more terrible person than Darla is,
但我们却开始渐渐喜欢上他
but we can come to like Jaime
因为我们并不是将他和
because we’re not comparing him to
达拉或是其他普通人比较
Darla or any normal person.
我们将他与——
We’re comparing him to:
乔弗里王子 瓦德·佛雷 拉姆斯·波顿——
——Prince Joffrey; Walder Frey; Ramsay Bolton——
这些无可挽回坏到骨子里的角色对比
people who have no redeeming qualities.
马丁用这些角色衬托出了主人公的优点
Martin uses these characters to make the protagonists look good.
有成百上千种方法
There are a thousand ways
让人们和虚构人物产生共鸣
to get people to empathize with a fictional character
不过简洁明了的操作是
but a few good steps are
给予他们一些残缺与不利
to give them a disability or disadvantage,
夺走他们最珍视的东西
take away whatever they value most,
或者把他们和客观上比他们坏得多的人们放在一起
or play them off of people who are objectively worse.
乔治·R·R·马丁这套玩得很溜
George R. R. Martin does this perfectly
这也是为什么我不很理解
which is why I don’t understand it
有些人说 “这套书的成功在于它的暴力与黑暗”
when people say,”The series is successful because it’s gritty or dark”
马丁不止是随意叫人死翘 毁灭来制造震撼效果
Martin doesn’t just throw death and destruction around for shock value.
每一处暴力都是经过精心布置的
Each act of violence is utilized with extreme care.
暴力不过是一个塑造人物
Violence is a tool to help develop the characters
操纵观众情绪的手段而已
and manipulate the audience’s emotions.
乔治·R·R·马丁是当今最成功的作家之一
George R. R. Martin is one of the most successful writers around right now——
不是因为他是个杀死角色的大师
not because he is the master of killing characters
而是因为他是营造“共鸣”的大家
but because he is the master of empathy.
感谢大家的观看
Thanks for watching everyone.
如果觉得有趣 别忘了订阅哦
If you found this interesting, please make sure to subscribe.
每隔一周的周二我会新上传视频
New videos will be posted every other Tuesday
我还有一堆话想说呢
And I’ve got tons more to say.
这里是Sage 我们下一期再会!
My name is Sage and I’ll see you soon!

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视频概述

乔治·R·R·马丁到底用怎样的技巧抓住了观众的心?《权力的游戏》的魅力到底源自何处?为何我们渐渐喜欢上弑君者詹姆?为何艾德·史塔克领了便当?这次就让我们揭晓马丁老爷子的编剧技巧吧~

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2rhMu6FFJPw

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