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尼采如何看待21世纪的社会?

What Would Nietzsche Think of 21st Century Society?

尼采如何看待21世纪的社会?
Friedrich Nietzsche believed himself to be a philosophical physician.
弗里德里希·尼采相信自己会成为一名哲学医生
One of his missions in life was to help others
他的人生使命之一是帮助他人
understand the sickness into which modern society was falling
理解现代社会正在陷入的弊病
and to offer a cure to the poison of a corrupted value system.
并提供腐败价值体系毒害的治疗方案
“在此行医 在此冷酷 在此挥刀——
这是我们的责任 这是我们的慈善
同时 我们是哲学家”
Nietzsche, however, knew that
然而 尼采知道
his philosophical diagnosis were unlikely to find acceptance in the late 19th century,
他的哲学诊断不可能在他所生活的19世纪末
the time in which he lived.
为人所接受
“我的时代还没有到来……”
他在他的自传中写道:
“有的人死后方生……”
“如果我期待今天能找到倾听和发现真理的耳朵和眼睛
我认为这完全是自相矛盾的:
事实上 没有人听我说
也没有人知道今天如何从我这里收到消息
这不仅可以理解
而且在我看来也是正确的”
In declaring that he would be born posthumously, that is, born after his death
在宣称他将死后方生时
Nietzsche knew that his philosophy would be better suited for the future.
尼采知道他的哲学将会更适合未来
Could it be that his time has finally come?
他的时代最终来临了吗?
In this video, we are going to explore this question
我们将在本视频中探讨这个问题
by using Nietzsche’s idea to philosophically diagnose
通过运用尼采的哲学思想来诊断
some of the problems of 21st century society.
21世纪社会的一些问题
Problems such as digital addiction, social media shaming, virtue signalling, academic censorship,
如数字成瘾 社交媒体羞辱 美德信号 学术审查
and the rise and worship of new god of statism.
国家主义新神的兴起和崇拜等问题
One of the defining trends of the 21st century
21世纪的决定性趋势之一是
has been the rise of mobile technology
移动技术的兴起
and the remarkable amount of time many of us spend staring at our screens.
以及我们大多数人花大量时间盯着屏幕看
We are a generation of digital addicts.
我们是数字成瘾的一代
While the long term effects of this behavior are not known,
虽然这种行为的长期影响尚不为人知
there is plenty of evidence to suggest it is impairing our cognitive abilities.
但大量证据表明它正在损害我们的认知能力
In his Pulitzer Prize nominated book The Shallows, Nicholas Carr wrote:
尼古拉斯·卡尔在普利策奖提名的 《浅薄》中写道:
“从隐喻上说 我们在经历早期文明轨迹的逆转”
“我们正从成为个人知识的培养者
发展成为电子数据森林中的猎人和采集者”
Over a century before the technological revolution,
在技术革命前一个世纪
Nietzsche, with impressive foresight, pinpointed the ill effects smart phones
尼采以深刻的远见明确指出智能手机
would have on our capacity to reflect and cultivate self-knowledge.
对我们自我认知能力的反应和培养有不良影响
“即使到现在还有人为休息感到羞愧
长时间的沉思几乎使人良心不安”
一个人在思考时还要盯着手表看
就像边吃午餐边阅读股市的最新消息
人活得就像总是“可能会错过一些事情”一样
Coupled with the cognitive cost associated with hours a day on our devices,
加上每天在我们设备上花时间所带来的认知成本
another problem created by the technological revolution is the power it grants to the mob.
技术革命带来的另一个问题是 这赋予了暴民权利
The mob has been an ever-present threat to the well-being of individuals since the dawn of civilization.
自文明出现以来 暴民一直都是个人福祉的威胁
尼采说 “个人出现疯狂是罕见的”
“(疯狂)却在群体 党派 民族 时代中 这就是规则”
Socrates, as a paradigmatic example, was put to death because the mob of Athens
苏格拉底作为一个典型例子 被处死 因为雅典暴民
declared his philosophical explorations to be a corrupting influence on the youth.
宣称他的哲学探索对年轻人产生了腐化的影响
But smartphones and social media have propelled the madness of the mob to a new level.
智能手机和社交媒体将暴徒的疯狂推到一个新高度
To join a mob no longer must we even leave our homes,
甚至不必出门就可以加入暴民
instead we can assemble on all ends of the Earth on social media and seek out a communal scapegoat
相反 人们可以通过社交媒体从地球各地聚集 寻找一个共同的替罪羊
and satiate what Nietzsche called our “lustful greed, bitter envy, sour vindictiveness, mob pride.”
来满足尼采说 “极度贪婪 极其嫉妒 可怕的报复 暴民的骄傲”
尼采写道 “每个可怜虫都以责骂为乐 ——这使他有点沉迷于权力”
“即使是抱怨和恸哭 也能赋予生命一种魅力 使其经久不衰”
每一份抱怨都含有微量的报复元素
人们谴责那些与自己感觉不同的人
or as he wrote in the Dawn of Day,
如他在《朝霞》中所写:“在残酷的行为中
群体会自我恢复并摆脱持续的恐惧和谨慎的阴影
残忍是人类最古老的乐趣之一”
One of the weapons the mob make frequent use of is virtue signalling.
乌合之众经常利用的一个武器就是道德信号
One says or does something which appears altruistic solely for the sake of gaining a moral pedestal
每个人的言行似乎是利他的 仅仅为了获得一个道德高点
upon which one feel justified to attack and censor anyone who holds different values or ideas.
使他觉得有理由攻击或审查任何持不同价值观或思想的人
In other words, through virtue signalling one hides a streak of malice behind outward displays of compassion.
换句话说 通过道德信号 人在同情的外表下隐藏着一丝恶意
Albert Camus, who was highly influenced by Nietzsche’s writings, observed that:
深受尼采的著作影响的加缪说:
“……人道主义情感总伴随着厌世[对人类的憎恨]”
人类的博爱是为了避免爱人 阿尔贝·加缪《刺客》
If Nietzsche were alive today
如果尼采今天还活着
he would have likened modern virtue signalers to the hypocritical Pharisees of the bible.
他会把现代道德信号比作《圣经》中虚伪的法利赛人
“They do not practice what they preach,” the book of Matthew wrote of them.
“他们推行的 自己却不去做” 马太福音这样写
Their outwards displays of virtue camouflage their desires for revenge.
表面的美德掩饰了他们复仇的欲望
Virtue signalling, Nietzsche would say, is the will to power of the weak.
尼采会说 道德信号是弱者权力的意志
Or as he explained:
或如他解释的那样:
“实际上 他们自己是多么地渴望让他人付出代价:
他们多么地渴望成为刽子手
在他们中有许多假扮成法官而复仇心切的人
他们口口声声说 ‘正义’ 就像一口有毒的唾沫
总是噘着嘴说着
总是随时准备向一切不满吐唾沫
而又兴致勃勃地走自己的路
弱者的意志代表着某种形式的优越性
他们本能地走上向健康的人施行暴政的曲折道路
这种弱者权力的意志 哪里能不被发现呢!”
Another way in which the venomous and envious seek to obtain power
恶毒者和嫉妒者获得权力的另一种方式
is by censoring ideas they deem “offensive”.
是审查他们认为“冒犯”的思想
In her book Academic Freedom in an Age of Conformity,
肯特大学教授乔安娜·威廉姆斯
Joanna Williams, a professor at the University of Kent,
在她的著作《从众时代的学术自由》中指出
notes there is a strong trend among university students to censor views they disagree with.
大学生中有一股审查他们反对的观点的强烈趋势
她写道 “……许多学生开始期待言论自由
他们认为大学应该是个‘安全空间’ 没有情感伤害或潜在冒犯”
Nietzsche would have found the idea of ‘safe spaces’ ludicrous.
尼采会觉得这种“安全空间”的想法很荒谬
As Patrick West points out in his book Get Over Yourself, rather than safe spaces,
如帕特里克·韦斯特在他的《超越你自己 而不是安全空间》中指出的那样
Nietzsche would have advocated for ‘dangerous spaces’;
尼采会主张“危险空间”
areas designated solely for intellectual sparring in which no belief or opinion is immune to criticism or attack.
任何信仰或观点在思想斗争中都会受到批评或攻击
The function of dangerous spaces would not be to offend or humiliate another person.
“危险空间”的作用 不是冒犯或羞辱他人
Their function would be to provide a space for individuals to partake in a sacred and age-old game,
而是提供个人参与神圣而古老的游戏的空间
a battle of ideas, the goal of which is to discover the truth.
这是一场揭示真理的思想斗争
As Nietzsche urged:
如尼采督促:
“你应该寻找自己的敌人
你应该发动战争——为自己的思想而战
如果你的观点没有获胜
你仍应诚实地高喊 战胜它!”
Or as he further wrote:
或如他进一步写道:
“一个极普遍的错误:勇于秉持自己的信念
而不是勇于挑战自己的信念”
Unfortunately, rather than encouraging an open battle of ideas,
不幸的是 大学教授们似乎
university professors seem to be, on the whole,
总体上都支持学术审查
supporting academic censorship.
而不是鼓励公开的思想斗争
Or as Joanna Williams writes:
如乔安娜·威廉姆斯写道:
“今天 我们看到的例子绝不是提倡学术自由
而是学者们试图让辩论远离公众
或审查他们认为个人或政治上不受欢迎的观点”
Based on his time spent as a tenured professor at the University of Basel,
尼采在巴塞尔大学担任终身教授时
Nietzsche observed first-hand
亲自观察到
that when it comes to academic censorship, the fault does not lie solely with professors,
就学术审查来说 出错的不仅仅只有教授
but exists in the fabric of the university institution itself.
而且还有大学制度本身的结构
尼采写道 “大学不可能有真正激进追求真理的生活”
The problem he saw is simple.
他看到的问题很简单
Most universities to this day are at least partially State-funded,
至今 大多数大学至少有一部分是由国家资助的
and all must obey the State’s laws and regulations.
而且所有大学都必须遵守国家的法律法规
And thus, as employees of the State,
因此 作为国家的雇员
university professors must ultimately serve the ends of the State.
大学教授最终必须为国家服务
Or as Nietzsche wrote:
或如尼采所写:
“同意成为国家的哲学家
必须同意放弃在所有隐秘中寻求真理
无论如何 只要这个人喜欢他的职位
他就必须承认有高于真理的东西——就是国家”
Recognizing the State as higher than the truth is,
不幸的是 承认国家高于真理
unfortunately, not a stance confined to university professors.
抱持这一立场的并不仅限于大学教授
Nietzsche saw it as symptomatic of society at large.
尼采认为这就是整个社会的症状
For with the death of the Christian god,
随着基督教上帝的死亡
Nietzsche knew that the need for a god would still remain.
尼采意识到民众仍然存有对上帝的诉求
the masses, he thought, would always need an idol to worship,
他认为 大众总需要一个偶像来崇拜
a “shadow of god” to which they can bow.
一个他们可以膜拜的 “上帝的影子”
尼采写道 “上帝已死
但是 按照人类的方式
可能还有千年洞穴 他的影子还会出现在那里”
While the shadows of god will morph and change as humanity tumbles onwards,
虽然上帝的影子会随着人类的发展而进化
today, in our rational and scientific times,
但是如今 在我们的理性和科学时代
Nietzsche thought the shadow of god we worship most fervently is the State.
尼采认为我们最崇拜的上帝的影子就是国家
“国家吗?那是什么?
那么 现在好好听着 因为我现在要对你们讲万民之死”
Nietzsche predicted the modern rise and worship of the State on two main fronts.
尼采从2个主要方面预测现代国家的兴起和崇拜
起先 他诡异地写道 可能有“几个伟大的实验
这些实验在社会主义社会中得以证明
生活否定自己 割断自己的根”
此外 他还预言 这些社会主义实验可能会
“使人类付出巨大的生命代价”
The socialist “experiments” in numerous countries in the 20th century
20世纪 许多国家的社会主义的“实验”
tragically proved Nietzsche’s forecasts right.
悲剧性地证明了尼采的预测是正确的
Secondly, and more relevant to our times,
其次 与我们的时代更加相关的是
Nietzsche wrote of the way in which the State would co-opt democracy as one of its demi-gods,
尼采写道 国家宣扬的民主是他的半神之一
and therein trick the masses into believing that they, “the people”, held the ultimate reins of control.
并以此欺骗大众 使其相信他们 “人民” 掌握最终的控制权
尼采写道 “在所有冰冷的怪物中 国家是最冰冷 最残酷的
它从口中吐出冰冷的谎言
告诉我们
‘国家就是民族’ 这是赤裸裸的谎言!
造物主创造了民族 他们用爱和信仰为民族护航:
他们努力地服务于生命……
而国家一直都在用所有能够表述善与恶的语言来编织谎言
无论它说什么 本质上都是一种欺骗
不管它有什么 其实都是它偷来的
‘世上没有什么比我更伟大的了 我是上帝的手指’
名叫国家的怪物就这样吼叫着……”
In addition to stealing from the citizens
除了通过征税或秘密印钞
either overtly through taxation or covertly through money printing,
从公民手中窃取财富外
modern states are also heavily reliant on narratives of fear to maintain control.
现代国家还严重依赖耸人听闻的危言维持控制
For one of the surest ways to conditioning a populace to accept and even venerate
调解民众最可靠的方法之一是使民众接受甚至崇拜
an institution and the people behind it who repeatedly rob and lie to them,
曾多次抢劫欺骗他们的机构和机构背后的人
is if the populace is kept in a constant state of anxiety and fear
如果民众长期处于焦虑和恐惧的环境
and then taught that only the State has the power to save them.
再给他们洗脑 只有政府有能力拯救他们
“现实政治的一切目的
就是让无数的(大多数是虚构的)妖怪
不断警醒民众”
(因此 他们吵着要被带到安全的地方)
It is perhaps but a coincidence that the God of the Old Testament promised to save
也许是巧合 《旧约》中的上帝只承诺拯救
only those who worshiped him through the easily impressionable emotion of fear:
那些易受恐惧情绪影响而崇拜他的人
诗篇上说“他会成全敬畏他的人的心愿
他也会垂听他们的诉求并拯救他们”
Or as Nietzsche wrote of the State:
或如尼采对国家的描述:
“毁灭者给许多人设下一个陷阱 这个陷阱叫做国家
在陷阱中 人们的头顶高悬的是欲望和利剑……
如果你崇拜这个新的偶像 它就会给你一切”
Carl Jung, who was greatly influenced by Nietzsche ,
深受尼采影响的卡尔·荣格
took similar note of modern man’s peculiar form of reverence:
注意到了现代人持有的崇敬方式:
“国家取代了上帝的位置” 荣格写道
“国家的奴役是一种崇拜形式……”
国家和教会一样
需要热情 自我牺牲和爱
如果宗教要求或预设‘对上帝的恐惧’
那么……国家就会谨慎地提供必要的恐惧”
So, if these would have been Dr. Nietzsche’s diagnoses of 21st century society,
因此 如果这是尼采博士对21世纪社会的诊断
what would his antidotes have been?
他的解药会是什么呢?
With respect to digital addiction,
关于数字上瘾
Nietzsche would likely have urged us to spend
尼采可能会敦促我们
more time in prolonged reflection in nature and less time staring at screens.
花更多时间在自然中进行反思 而少花时间盯着屏幕
“我们喜欢去大自然 因为大自然不会对我们有意见”
In terms of censorship, he would advise
在审查方面 他建议我们
we promote open debate in our social circles and touch on topics important to us,
在我们的社交圈中提倡公开辩论 触及重要的话题
even if they trigger or offend others.
即使这些话题会引怒或冒犯他人
With respect to the State,
对于国家
he would likely recommend that we look at it with a more critical eye
他可能会建议我们用更批判的眼光看待它
and to see through the political machinations that cloak its true nature.
并看穿掩盖其真实本质的政治阴谋
For the State is not benevolent, nor all-powerful like a god;
因为国家不是仁慈的 也不像神那样无所不能
it is an institution composed of men and women
这是一个机构 它由渴望控制和剥削我们的人组成
who desire to control and exploit us and who are drunk on their own power.
这些人醉心于自己的权力
And concerning social media shaming and in general the hostility which abounds online,
关于社交媒体的羞辱和网上充斥的敌意
Nietzsche would say: set a good example, and practice the cardinal virtues he called “the good four”:
尼采会说:树立一个好榜样 践行他称为“四美德”的基本美德
“诚实面对自己和对我们友好的人:
勇敢面对敌人
宽宏大量对待失败者 始终保持礼貌
Advocating for politeness is not something commonly attributed to Nietzsche.
提倡礼貌并不是尼采惯有的风格
However, if a philosopher preaches first and foremost by the example he sets,
然而 如果一个哲学家首先通过他树立的榜样来说教
in his personal life Nietzsche was reported to be kind and modest.
在他的个人生活中 尼采称得上是善良 谦虚的
It is interesting to note that his descent into “madness” commenced when he collapsed in empathy at the sight of a beaten horse.
有趣的是 他的“疯狂”源于 他看到一匹挨打的马 就感同身受地倒在地上
In his corpus of works, there are numerous aphorisms which display a high degree of compassion for others
他的著作有许多警句表达了对他人的高度同情
and a recognition of the suffering that pervades all mankind.
和对全人类遭受苦难的认识
“世界上没有足够的爱和仁慈能允许我们把这些点滴给予想象中的人 ”
While he wanted us to be hard and demanding on ourselves, he promoted patience and understanding towards others.
虽然他希望我们严格要求自己 但他也提倡对别人耐心和理解
Ultimately, however, if Nietzsche were alive today he would ask that we outgrow the need for his philosophical antidotes.
然而最终 如果尼采今天还活着 他会要求我们长大后不再需要他的哲学解药
“如果一个人仅仅是一个学生的话 他就不会尊重老师”
To accept Nietzsche, paradoxically, we must strive to overcome his rich insights.
荒谬的是 要接受尼采 我们必须努力克服他丰富的洞察力
We can use him as a guide to navigate the turbulence of modern existence,
我们可以把他作为向导 为我们在现代的动荡社会中导航
but above all else Nietzsche would have wanted us to forge our own way.
但最重要的是 尼采希望我们开拓自己的道路
For while Jesus pronounced:
因为耶稣说过
“想成为我的门徒 就必须否定自己
背起十字架跟随我”
Nietzsche said:
尼采说:
“我没有门徒 让每个人都成为自己真正的追随者 ”

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视频概述

弗里德里希·威廉·尼采是德国哲学家。西方现代哲学的开创者,同时也是卓越的诗人和散文家。是一位兼有哲学家的深刻思想,和诗人、艺术家的浪漫气质的现代最伟大的思想家和哲学家之一。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WED584SUWy4

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