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不睡觉会怎样 – 译学馆
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不睡觉会怎样

What would happen if you didn’t sleep? - Claudia Aguirre

1965年 17岁的高中生兰迪•加德纳
In 1965, 17-year-old high school student,Randy Gardner
264小时没有睡觉
stayed award for 264 hours.
那是看他如何应对没有睡眠的11天
That’s 11 days to see howhe’d cope without sleep.
第二天 他的目光涣散 接下来
On the second day,his eyes stopped focusing. Next,
他无法通过触摸来辨别物体
he lost the abilityto identify objects by touch.
到第三天 加德纳喜怒无常 言行不一
By day three, Gardner was moodyand uncoordinated.
在实验结束前 他努力集中(精力)
At the end of the experiment,he was struggling to concentrate,
短期记忆出现问题 变得偏执 并且开始出现幻觉
had trouble with short-term memory, became paranoid, and started hallucinating.
虽然加德纳康复了 没留下长期的心理
Although Gardner recovered withoutlong-term psychological
或物理伤害 但对其他人来说
or physical damage, for others,
失去睡眠可能会导致荷尔蒙失调 疾病
losing shuteye can result in hormonal imbalance, illness,
并且在极端情况下死亡
and, in extreme cases, death.
我们才刚刚开始理解为什么要睡觉
We’re only beginning to understandwhy we sleep to begin with,
但我们确实知道这是必不可少的
but we do know it’s essential.
成年人一个晚上需要七八个小时的睡眠
Adults need seven to eight hoursof sleep a night,
青少年需要大约十个小时
and adolescents need about ten.
我们犯困是由于自身的身体信号
We grow sleepy due to signalsfrom our body
告诉自己的大脑 我们累了
telling our brain we are tired,
天黑了就是环境告诉我们的信号
and signals from the environmenttelling us it’s dark outside.
睡眠诱导化学物质的增加
The rise in sleep-inducing chemicals,
像腺苷和褪黑激素
like adenosine and melatonin,
让我们从打盹渐渐进入深度睡眠
send us into a light dozethat grows deeper,
使我们的呼吸和心脏速率减慢
making our breathingand heart rate slow down
让我们的肌肉放松
and our muscles relax.
此非REM睡眠时是DNA提前一天修复
This non-REM sleep is when DNA is repaired
我们的身体 给自己充电的时候
and our bodies replenish themselvesfor the day ahead.
在美国
In the United States,
据估计 30%的成人 66%的青少年
it’s estimated that 30 % of adults and 66 % of adolescents
经常睡眠不足
are regularly sleep-deprived.
这不是一个小麻烦
This isn’t just a minor inconvenience.
一直不睡会导致严重的人身伤害
Staying awake can causeserious bodily harm.
当我们失眠时 学习 记忆 心情
When we lose sleep, learning, memory, mood,
和反应时间都受到影响
and reaction time are affected.
失眠也可引起炎症 幻觉
Sleeplessness may also cause inflammation, halluciations,
高血压
high blood pressure,
它甚至被认为与糖尿病和肥胖症有关
and it’s even been linked to diabetes and obesity.
2014年 一个忠实的足球迷
In 2014, a devoted soccer fan died
在连续48小时观看世界杯后死亡
after staying awake for 48 hoursto watch the World Cup.
虽然他的过早死去是由于中风
While his untimely deathwas due to a stroke,
研究表明 长期每晚睡眠少于六小时的人
studies show that chronically sleepingfewer than six hours a night
中风风险 是那些
increases stroke riskby four and half times
每晚睡七至八小时的人的4.5倍
compared to those getting a consistent seven to eight hours of shuteye.
对在这个
For a handful of people
星球上携带一种罕见突变基因的人类来说
on the planet who carry a rare inherited genetic mutation,
失眠是家常便饭
sleeplessness is a daily reality.
这种情况被称为致命性家族失眠症
This condition,known as Fatal Familial Insomnia,
身体在一个噩梦般的状态下无眠
places the body in a nightmarishstate of wakefulness,
不准它进入睡眠的“安息所”
forbidding it from enteringthe sanctuary of sleep.
经年累月后 这种逐步恶化的状况导致痴呆和死亡
Within months or years, this progressively worsening condition leads to dementia and death.
睡眠剥夺为何会引起如此巨大的痛苦?
How can sleep deprivationcause such immense suffering?
科学家认为 答案在于大脑中废物的积累
Scientists think the answer lieswith the accumulation of waste prducts in the brain.
在我们醒着的时候
During our waking hours,
我们的细胞都在忙着消耗一天的能源
our cells are busy using up our day’s energy sources,
其中细分为各种副产品
which get broken downinto various byproducts,
包括腺苷
including adenosine.
随着腺苷的积聚 它增加了睡觉的欲望
As adenosine builds up, it increases the urge to sleep,
也被称为睡眠压力
also known as sleep pressure.
事实上 咖啡因通过阻断腺苷的受体途径来起作用
In fact, caffeine works by blockingadenosine’s receptor pathways.
其他废物也在脑中积聚
Other waste productsalso build up in the brain,
若不清理掉 它们共同给大脑增加负荷
and if they’re not cleared away,they collectively overload the brain
这被认为是导致睡眠剥夺的诸多不良症状的原因 那么
and are thought to lead to the many negative symptoms of sleep deprivation. So,
当我们睡觉时 我们的大脑发生了什么事来阻止这种情况呢?
what’s happening in our brain when we sleep to prevent this?
科学家发现淋巴系统
Scientists found something calledthe glymphatic system,
一个清理机制 能消除这种堆积
a clean-up mechanismthat removes this buildup
并在我们睡着时更加活跃
and is much more active when we’re asleep.
它的工作原理是利用脑脊液冲走
It works by using cerebrospinal fluidto flush away toxic byproducts
在细胞之间的有毒的副产品
that accumulate between cells.
淋巴管 作为免疫细胞的途径
Lymphatic vessels,which serve as pathways for immune cells,
最近在大脑中被发现
have recently been discoveredin the brain,
它们也可能
and they may also play a role
清理出大脑的日常副产品
in clearing out the brain’s daily waste products.
虽然科学家继续探索背后的睡眠恢复机制
While scientists continue exploringthe restorative mechanisms behind sleep,
我们可以肯定的是如果我们要保持我们的健康和理智
we can be sure that slippinginto slumber is a necessity
睡觉是必要的
if we want to maintain our healthand our sanity.

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年青人,不要老熬夜!

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