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一直不喝水你会变成怎样?

What would happen if you didn’t drink water? - Mia Nacamulli

水几乎无处不在
Water is virtually eveywhere,
从土壤水分和冰盖
from soil moisture and ice caps,
到我们身体的细胞里
to the cells inside our own bodies.
水含量取决于我们所处的地区
Depending on factors like location,
体脂 年龄 性别
fat index, age, and sex.
人体平均水含量在55%-60%之间
The average human is between 55-60% water.
刚出生时 人体水含量更高
At birth, human babies are even wetter.
达到75%
Being 75% water,
几乎和鱼体内的水一样多
they are swimmingly similar to fish.
但在他们一岁时
But their water composition drops to 65%
含水量会降低至65%
by their first birthday.
那么水分在我们的体内扮演什么样的角色
So what role does water play in our bodies,
为了保持健康
and how much do we actually need to drink
我们需要喝多少水呢
to stay healthy?
我们体内的水分有缓冲 润滑关节
The H20 in our bodies works to cushion and lubricate joints,
调节体温 滋养大脑和脊髓的作用
regulate temperature, and to nourish the brain and spinal cord.
水不仅存在于血液中
Water isn’t only in our blood.
成年人大脑和心脏几乎有75%是水
An adult’s brain and heart are almost three quarters water.
大概与一个香蕉的含水量相同
That’s roughly equivalent to the amount of moisture in a banana.
肺部的含水量接近一个苹果 高达83%
Lungs are more similar to an apple at 83%.
看似干燥的骨头也有31%的水
And even seemingly dry human bones are 31% water.
如果我们的主要组成部分是水
If we are essentially made of water,
并且生存的环境中也有很多水
and surrounded by water,
为什么我们还需要喝那么多水呢
why do we still need to drink so much?
人体每天
Well, each day we lose two to three liters
通过排汗 大小便
through our sweat, urine, and bowel movements,
甚至呼吸损失2至3升水
and even just from breathing.
这些功能对于生存至关重要
While these functions are essential to our survival,
我们需要弥补损失的体液
we need to compensate for the fluid loss.
保持体内的水分平衡
Maintaining a balanced water level is essential to avoid dehydration
才可以从根本上避免脱水或水分过多
or over-hydration,
两者都会损害我们的健康
both of which can have devastating effects on overall health.
人体感受到轻度脱水时
At first detection of low water levels,
下丘脑的感应接收器
sensory receptors in the brain’s hypothalamus
会发出信号释放抗利尿激素
signal the release of antidiuretic hormone.
当激素到达肾脏就会产生水通道蛋白
When it reached the kidneys, it creates aquaporins,
一种可以使血液保留更多水分的通道
special channels that enable blood to absorb and retain more water,
会造成浓缩并且变深的尿液
leading to concentrated, dark urine.
脱水情况加重会造成明显的精力不足
Increased dehydration can cause notable drops in energy,
情绪不佳 皮肤干燥
mood, skin moisture,
血压降低
and blood pressure,
还有认知障碍
as well as signs of cognitive impairment.
脱水的大脑与正常大脑相比
A dehydrated brain works harder to accomplish the same amount
完成相同的工作会更困难
as a normal brain,
缺水时 其会暂时收缩
and it even temporarily shrinks
水分过多 也即低钠血症
Over-hydration, or hyponatremia,
通常是由于短时间内的过度消耗引起的
is usually caused by overconsumption of water in a short of time
运动员是此类症状常见的患者
Athletes are often the victims of over-hydration
因为在极端的身体状况下
because of complications in regulating water levels
身体无法调节体内水含量
in extreme physical conditions.
脱水的大脑会释放抗利尿激素
Whereas the dehydrated brain amps up
含水量过高的大脑 迟钝 甚至会开始受损
the over-hydrated brain slows,
体内的钠电解质会被稀释
Sodium electrolytes in the body become diluted,
使细胞富含水分
causing cells to swell.
严重的情况下
In severe cases,
肾脏无法处理大量稀释过的尿液
the kidneys can’t keep up with the resulting volumes of dilute urine.
就会导致水中毒
Water intoxication then occurs,
可能会引起头痛 呕吐
possibly causing headache, vomiting,
少数人会产生痉挛甚至死亡
and, in rare instances, seizures or death.
但那只是极端的情况
But that’s a pretty extreme situation.
通常 在日常生活中
On a normal, day-to-day basis,
对于我们这些比较幸运
maintaining a well-hydrated system is easy to manage
可以获取干净的饮用水的人
for those of us fortunate enough
保持健康的水平衡是很轻松的
to have access to clean drinking water.
有很长一段时间 大家普遍认为
For a long time, conventional wisdom said that
我们每天需要喝八杯水
we should drink eight glasses a day.
这个说法已经被调整过了
That estimate has since been fine-tuned.
目前大家一致认为我们每天需要摄取的水分
Now, the consensus is that the amount of water we need to imbibe
大部分取决于我们的体重和生活环境
depends largely on our weight and environment.
建议每日水分的摄入量
The recommended daily intake varies
女性为2-2.7升
and about 2-2.7 liters for women,
这个范围也可根据我们的身体状况
a range that is pushed up or down
活动量 年龄 体温来调节
if we are healthy, active, old, or overheating.
虽然纯净水是最健康的饮品
While water is the healthiest hydrator,
其他饮料
other beverages,
甚至含有咖啡因的咖啡或茶
even those with caffeine like coffee or tea,
都可以补充水分
replenish fluids as well.
食物中的水分
And water within food makes up about
水果蔬菜 比如草莓 黄瓜
Fruits and vegetables like strawberries, cucumbers,
还有西兰花90%的组成部分都是水
and even broccoli are over 90% water,
在提供营养纤维素的同时
and can supplement liquid intake
长远来看 良好的饮水习惯
Drinking well might also have various
研究表明 理想的水分摄入状态
Studies have shown that optimal hydration
有助于控制糖尿病
help manage diabetes,
还可能有助于降低
and potentially reduce the risk of
患上一些特定癌症的风险
certain types of cancer.
不管怎样 摄取适量的水份
No matter what, getting the right amount of liquid
可以使人体的
makes a world of difference
思考能力以及身体机能
in how you’ll feel, think,
得到很大的改善
and function day to day.

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视频概述

水份在我们的日常生活中起到什么作用?脱水和过量饮水会有什么后果?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

张总的小蜜

审核员

审核团V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9iMGFqMmUFs

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