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你不知道的电子烟真相 – 译学馆
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你不知道的电子烟真相

What We Don't Know about E-Cigs

当孩子们说出电子香烟的名字时 它似乎无处不在
Electronic cigarettes, or e-cigs, as the kids call them, seem to be everywhere these days,
从超级碗广告到脱口秀节目无处不在
from Super Bowl ads to talk shows.
电子香烟声称会帮助人们离开香烟 或者至少是提供了一个更安全的选择
They claim to help people quit smoking, or at least provide a safer alternative to cigarettes.
普通的香烟用烟叶制成 烟叶是用一些化学剂培植的
See, your average cigarette is filled with tobacco, which is the leaves of tobacco plants
烟草植物的叶子
prepared with some chemicals.
当烟草燃烧的时候 你会吸入大量的混合物质 有些是有毒的
When you burn tobacco, you’re inhaling thousands of compounds, including some that are toxic,
有些会使人上瘾 像尼古丁这样的东西
or addictive like nicotine.
另一方面 电子香烟是用电池供电的 里面是化学混合物
E-cigs, on the other hand, are battery-powered and turn a chemical mixture, or e-liquid,
当你吸烟时 在香烟里的液体就会变成蒸气释放出来
into a vapor that you inhale.
但是它们真得比香烟好吗
But are they really better for you than cigarettes?
因为没有太多关于电子香烟的研究 所以我们仍然不知道
Turns out, there’s not much conclusive research about e-cigs, so we still don’t really know
电子香烟会怎么样影响人类的健康
how they could affect human health.
当你点燃一支香烟时 电子香烟里的金属线圈就会发热然后加热液体
When you turn on an e-cigarette, a small, metal coil warms up and heats the e-liquid,
当你吸入的时候 电子液体就会变成蒸汽释放出来
turning it into a vapor that you inhale through a mouthpiece.
电子香烟最初出现并发展是在2002年或2003年
The original e-cigs were developed around 2002 or 2003, and mimicked the size and shape
电子香烟是模仿真实香烟的大小和形状制作的
of cigarettes.
但是现在有蒸馏器 可以吐雾或者时尚好看的具有不同特征的电子香烟
But now there are vaporizers, vape pens, or vape mods, which are larger devices with different
例如可以调节电力强度去释放烟雾
features, such as adjustable power levels for more or less vapor and adjustable flavor
调节每一次喷烟的强度
intensity with each puff.
电子液体通常含有三个主要成分
E-liquids usually have three main ingredients:
丙二醇——一种用于食品和用来保持化妆品不干燥的化学剂
There’s propylene glycol, a chemical used in food and cosmetics to keep them moist;
人造调味品——像薄荷醇或者泡泡糖 偶尔有尼古丁
artificial flavorings, like menthol or bubble gum; and sometimes nicotine.
因为电子香烟一次只会消耗一点点材料
the Since e-cigs only vaporize a few ingredients,
所以它们可能会是一个很好的代替烟草制品的选择
they’re supposedly a safer alternative to smoking tobacco, which produces lots of toxic
毕竟烟草制品会释放大量有毒的化学物质
chemicals.
但是调查是复杂的——很多研究都不是决定性的
But the research is complicated – most studies aren’t conclusive, or even contradict each
甚至他们互相否定
other.
在美国 食品及药物管理局直到八月份才开始监管电子香烟
In the United States, the FDA didn’t begin regulating e-cigs until this August, so there
所以人们对电子香烟的质量感到担忧
have been concerns about quality.
例如 在2012年到2016年许多研究发现
For example, Multiple studies from 2012 to 2016, found that tiny metal particles could
当在加热时金属圈里的金属粒子会停止运动
break off from some heating coils when they get hot.
长时间吸入金属粒子会毁坏肺器官
Over time, inhaling those metal particles could damage someone’s lungs.
在它们被监管之前 也有人担心电子液体的质量问题
There were also concerns about the quality of e-liquids – like, before they were regulated,
在一些声称没有尼古丁的产品里面被发现含有尼古丁成份
nicotine was sometimes found in products that claimed to be nicotine-free.
甚至听说在电子液体中含有一种叫二甘醇的防冻剂的原料
You might have even heard that e-liquids contain an ingredient in antifreeze called diethylene
二甘醇对人体是有害
glycol, which is toxic to humans.
但是这实际上是一个虚构的事情
That’s actually a myth.
在2009年 食品及药物管理局调查了两家公司的电子香烟
In 2009, the FDA did study two companies’ e-cigarette products, and found this chemical
他们发现在一份电子液体的样品中发现了这种化学物质
in one e-liquid sample.
但是这个发现并没有进行再次验证
But the findings haven’t been replicated since, so it’s likely that this sample was
所以这可能仅仅是因为这份样品被其他东西污染了
just contaminated from another source.
不管怎么样 食品及药物管理局出台了新规去监管线圈和电子液体的质量
Regardless, the new FDA regulations will monitor the quality of coils and e-liquids, the EU
在2014年欧盟也采取了类似的安全法规
adopted similar safety requirements in 2014, and health organizations from other countries
其他国家的健康组织也如法炮制
will probably follow suit.
因为没有足够长的时间对电子香烟进行细节性研究
But we still don’t know much about their long-term effects, because e-cigarettes haven’t
所以我们仍然不知道电子香烟的长期影响
been around long enough for detailed studies.
以及关于电子液体的组成部分——丙二醇的影响
Take the e-liquid ingredient propylene glycol.
即使食品及药物管理局表明它在食物和化妆品中是安全的
Even though the FDA declares it safe in food and cosmetics, we don’t know what happens
但是我们不知道当我们长期吸入这种物质会有什么影响
in the long-term when you breathe it in.
一项来自新英格兰的医学杂志的2015项研究报告表明
One 2015 study from the New England Journal of Medicine reported that heating propylene
加热丙二醇可能会产生甲醛
glycol could potentially produce formaldehyde-releasing agents, which are chemicals that could become
因为丙二醇被破坏后会变成甲醛
formaldehyde as they break down.
如果你在高中生物课上接触过解剖 你可能会记得
If you did dissections in high school biology, you might remember formaldehyde as that smelly
甲醛是一种用于保存尸体的化学剂
chemical that preserves dead bodies.
吸入过多的甲醛会导致人们患癌症的风险增加
And extended exposure to formaldehyde vapor leads to an increased risk of cancer.
我们不知道当我们吸入纯甲醛时 这些化学剂是否对我们的身体
Then again, we don’t know if these chemicals have the same health effects as exposure to
有相同的影响
pure formaldehyde.
因为调查没有重复进行 所以我们不能确切地知道
And we don’t even know for sure that heating propylene glycol with e-cigarette coils creates
随着电子线圈的加热 加热丙二醇是否会释放出甲醛
these formaldehyde-releasing agents, because the study hasn’t been repeated.
电子香烟对人体健康的影响如此难研究的原因是因为
One of the reasons it’s so hard to study the health effects of e-cigs is because the
科学家们用来研究香烟的研究方法并没有很好的调动来研究电子香烟
research methods that scientists use to study cigarettes don’t transfer that well.
为了了解香烟烟雾中的化学物质 科学家可以用机器模拟
To understand the chemicals in cigarette smoke, for example, scientists can use machines that
吸烟者多久会吸一口烟和他们的吸入量
simulate how often a smoker takes a puff and how much smoke they inhale.
但是对于定制的vape笔 不同的研究用不一样的蒸馏器
But with customizable vape pens, different studies have been using different vaporizers,
电源设置 和电子液体
power settings, and e-liquids.
所以对比不同研究结果是很艰难的 以及没有人确切地知道
So it’s hard to compare results, and no one knows exactly how much vapor the average
普通使用者会吸入多少蒸气
user breathes in.
此外,科学家们已经了解到烟草中的化学物质与我们身体的是怎么发生作用的
Also, scientists have learned how the chemicals in tobacco smoke interact with our bodies:
在某些细胞中这些化学物质会与化合物发生反应引起肺损伤
These chemicals react with compounds in certain cells, cause lung damage, and leave behind
以及对头发和尿液有副作用
byproducts that turn up in hair or urine.
不幸的是 现在没人知道电子液体成分的反应与细胞成分有什么关系
Unfortunately, right now, no one knows what cellular components the e-liquid ingredients
以及会发生什么副作用
might be reacting with, and what byproducts might be created.
就好像我说的那样 它是复杂的
Like I said, it’s complicated.
现在关于电子香烟对身体的风险也没有确切的结论 但是至少可能会帮助他们
Now, the health risks of e-cigarettes might be inconclusive, but can they at least help
停止吸烟
smokers quit?
我们可以听到很多令人敬畏 有趣的用电子香烟戒烟成功的故事
There are plenty of anecdotal success stories, which is awesome!
除去那些不确定的结论 很多不同的研究中都认为
Except there’s not really conclusive, scientific evidence to prove e-cigarettes help – lots
电子香烟对戒烟是有帮助的
of different studies say different things.
在杂志上的一篇报告指出在2009年到2014年
One study published in the journal Addiction tracked nearly 6000 British cigarette-smokers
英国有将近6000个吸烟者
between 2009 and 2014.
他们发现使用电子香烟戒烟比
They found that more people who used e-cigs quit smoking altogether than those who used
嚼口香糖戒烟要有用得多
over-the-counter aids like patches or gum, or no aids at all.
但是在2013年在杂志上刊登了一篇关于尼古丁和烟草的研究报告指出
But a similar study in 2013 from the journal of Nicotine and Tobacco Research saw the opposite
在将近3000个美国戒烟者中发现了电子香烟的缺点
in nearly 3000 Americans who called smoking quitline services.
他们在七个月后进行跟踪调查 发现使用电子香烟戒烟的人
They surveyed these people seven months later, and reported that e-cigarette users were less
更不愿意停止吸烟
「 likely to quit smoking.
所以人们认为电子香烟是有帮助的
It’s possible that e-cigs could be helpful because people think they are, which is something
可能只是我们所说的心理作用
we call the placebo effect.
最后 尽管我们不知道电子香烟中的科技
Ultimately, though, there’s just a lot we don’t know about the science of e-cigarettes.
当科学家做更多严密的 反复的 大规模的调查后
As scientists do more rigorous, repeatable, large-scale research, we’re hoping to find
我们希望可以发现答案
some more answers.
但是现在我们真得不知道电子香烟究竟安不安全
But right now, it’s only safe to say that we really don’t/know how safe they are.
感谢收看这集的Scishow 感谢在Patreon网站上的赞助人
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow, brought to you by our patrons on Patreon.
如果你想帮助我们制作这些片段 你可以进入patreon.com/scishow
If you want to keep helping us make episodes like this, you can visit patreon.com/scishow,
当然也可以进入youtube.com/scishow订阅
and be sure to visit youtube.com/scishow and subscribe.

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