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什么是华氏温度计 – 译学馆
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什么是华氏温度计

What the Fahrenheit?!

作为一个澳大利亚裔加拿大人
As an Australian Canadian
我对华氏温标一脸懵逼
the Fahrenheit temperature scale has always seemed a bit arbitrary to me.
我的意思是为什么水在32度结冰?
I mean why does water freezes at 32 degrees?
为什么是那个整数 ?0代表什么?
Why that integer and what exactly does 0 represent?
根据许多资料
According to many sources,
华氏温标的定义是设定0度
the Fahrenheit scale was defined by setting 0 degrees
等于冰 盐和水混合物的温度
equal to the temperature of the ice, salt and water mixture,
一百度大致等于人体的温度
and a hundred degrees being roughly equal to human body temperature.
但那不正确
But that isn’t true.
真实的故事更有趣 更科学
The real story is much more interesting and scientific.
1701年8月14日
August 14th, 1701 was almost certainly the worst day
几乎是15岁的丹尼尔•家百列•华伦海特生命中最糟糕的一天
in the life of 15 year-old Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit.
那天 他的父母突然死于蘑菇中毒
On that day, both of his parents died suddenly from mushroom poisoning.
他从居住的波兰被送往阿姆斯特丹
And he was sent from Poland where he lived to Amsterdam
去当一个会计学徒
to become an apprentice bookkeeper.
但华伦海特无法忍受他的学徒生涯
But Fahrenheit couldn’t stand his apprenticeship and
逃跑了很多次 导致他的雇主发布了逮捕令
ran away so many times that his employer put out a warrant for his arrest.
他在欧洲各个城市旅行
Traveling from city to city around Europe,
变得着迷于科学仪器 特别是温度计
he became fascinated with scientific instruments and in particular, thermometers.
1708年 也许是因为寻求帮助解决那份要求逮捕他的委托书
In 1708, possibly seeking help with the warrant,
华伦海特求见了哥本哈根市市长—
Fahrenheit met with the mayor of Copenhagen,
著名的天文学家奥勒•罗默
who happened to be the famous astronomer Ole Rømer.
罗默以观测木卫食
Rømer is known for observing the eclipses of Jupiter’s moons
和意识到木卫食发生时间的变更
and realizing that variations in the timing of those eclipses
是由光到达地球的时间造成的而闻名
was caused by the time it took light to reach Earth.
换句话说
In other words, he found a way
他找到了一种精确测量光的有限速度的方法
to accurately measure the finite speed of light.
与本故事更相干的是
But, more pertinent to this story,
在1702年摔断了腿后 罗默宅在家里养伤
in 1702, Rømer was housebound after breaking his leg.
为了打发时间 他设计了一种全新的温标
And to pass the time, he devised a brand-new temperature scale
水的凝固点设为7.5度
with the freezing point of water at 7.5 degrees
人体体温设为22.5度
and body temperature at 22.5 degrees.
现在 这看起来可能有些奇怪 直到你开始仔细考虑
Now, this might seem odd until you consider that Rømer wanted
罗默想把水的沸点设为60度 就不再感到奇怪了
the boiling point of water to be 60 degrees.
作为一名天文学家 他习惯用60区分数字
As an astronomer, he had experience dividing things by 60.
所以 如果你使用这个温标
So if you take this scale,
把它二等分 再二等分 再二等分
divide it in half, in half again and in half once more,
你会发现水的凝固点在温标八分之一位置
you find the freezing point of water one eighth up the scale,
而人体的温度在温标八分之三位置
and human body temperature three eighth up the scale.
所以在1708年他们见面时
So at their meeting in 1708
华伦海特学到了罗默的温标并把它应用在自己的温标上
Fahrenheit learned of Rømer’s temperature scale and adopted it as his own,
并做了点细微调整 因为他发现罗默温标
adjusting it slightly because he found it
“由于有小数使用起来不方便 不文雅”
“inconvenient and inelegant on account of fractional numbers”.
于是他把它们(7.5与22.5)扩大到8与24
So he scaled them up to 8 and 24.
这就是最初的华氏温标
And this is the original Fahrenheit scale.
他用这种温标制作了一段时间的温度计
He produced thermometers for some time using this scale.
随后
But then at some later point,
华伦海特将温标上所有数字乘以4
Fahrenheit multiplied all numbers on the scale by 4
将凝固点设置为现在熟悉的32度 体温设为96度
setting freezing point to the now-familiar 32 and body temperature to 96.
他为什么这么做已经不清楚了
It’s unclear exactly why he did this.
他可能只是想在测量上更精确些
He may just have wanted finer precision in his measurements.
但我认为还有个更好的理由
But I think there was a better reason.
你知道 华伦海特是个优秀的仪器制造者
You see, Fahrenheit was an excellent instrument maker.
他的温度计彼此一样精确
His thermometers agreed with each other precisely
在那个时候闻所未闻
at a time when that was unheard of.
他开创性使用水银作为测温液体
He pioneered the use of mercury as a measuring liquid,
水银与那时候大多数其他温度计所使用的酒精相比
which has the benefit of a much higher boiling point than the alcohol
具有沸点更高的优点
used in most other thermometers at the time.
因为这些成就
And for these accomplishments
他被纳入英国皇家学会
he was inducted into the British Royal Society.
我们知道 他读过牛顿 波义耳和虎克的作品
And we know that he read the works of Newton, Boyle, and Hook,
在这些作品中 他可能产生了一个想法
in which he would have come across the idea
温度每升高一度
that one degree increase in temperature could correspond to
会导致液体体积以一个特定比例膨胀
a specific fractional increase in the volume of the measuring liquid.
现在 华氏温度每升高一度
And today, a one degree Fahrenheit increase in temperature
导致水银的体积增加了1/10000
increases the volume of mercury by exactly one part in 10,000.
这只是巧合吗?
Is this just a coincidence?
嗯 我们可能永远也不会确定
Well, we’ll probably never know for sure because
因为作为仪器制造商 华伦海特对他的方法守口如瓶
as an instrument maker Fahrenheit was very secretive about his methods.
但我认为这些数据强有力地表明事实就是这样
But I think the data strongly suggest that this was the case.
那么 在华氏温标和罗默温标中 零度代表什么?
So, what exactly did zero represent on the scales of Fahrenheit, and Rømer?
许多解释说 这是盐和冰水混合物的温度
By many accounts, it’s the temperature of salt ice and water mixture.
唯一的问题是对这些混合物有很多不同的描述
The only problem is there are different descriptions of these mixtures
而实际上没有一个能产生它们本该达到的温度
And none of them actually produces the temperature they’re supposed to.
更有可能的是 我认为他们把冬天最冷的温度
More likely, I think they picked the coldest temperature in winter
设定为零度
set that as zero
后来又用冰和盐水混合物来校准新温度计
and later used ice and brine to calibrate new thermometers.
在他那个时代 华氏温度计是你能得到的最好的温度计
In his day, the Fahrenheit thermometer was the best you could get.
但现在只有开曼群岛
But now his scale is only used regularly in the Cayman Islands,
巴哈马群岛、伯利兹城和美利坚合众国仍在使用华氏温标
Bahamas, Belize— oh, and the United States of America.
所以 也许到我们都该采用全球温标——摄氏温标的时候了
So maybe it’s time we all adopted the global scale of temperature:
顺便说一句 这并不是摄氏所发明的
Celsius, which by the way, wasn’t invented by Celsius at all.
嘿!这次视频有点不同
Hey! So that was something a little bit different.
这段视频的动画由Marcello Ascani制作
This video was animated by Marcello Ascani.
在视频简介里我留了一个到他频道的链接
I’ve got a link to his channel in the description.
你知道吗 当我看到原来的摄氏温度计后
You know, I became really fascinated with temperature scale
我变得对温标非常着迷
after I saw the original Celsius thermometer.
你们可以在这里看到它的视图
You can see that view here.
这个视频部分由Patreon上像你们一样的观众赞助支持
Now, this video was supported in part by viewers like you on Patreon,
部分由audible.com赞助支持
and by audible.com,
这是一个有声读物的领先供应商 有成千上万主题
a leading provider of audiobooks with hundreds of thousands of titles in
囊括所有文学领域
all areas of literature,
包括小说 非小说的散文 和期刊
including fiction nonfiction and periodicals.
对于这个频道的观众
And for viewers of this channel,
Audible提供了30天免费的试用
Audible offers a free 30-day trial
你可以下载你选择的任何一本书
where you can download any book of your choosing.
去audible.com/veritasium吧
Just go to audible.com/veritasium.
我有一本书想推荐给你们
And I have a book that I would recommend to you.
托马斯·库恩所著的《科学革命的结构》
It is called The Structure of Scientific Revolutions by Thomas S. Kuhn.
这是科学史和科学哲学的经典之作
This is a classic in the history and philosophy of science.
它会使你用不同的方式看待科学
And it’ll make you see science in a different way
它向我们展示科学不仅是一个过程
because it shows us that science is not just one process
有重大科学发现时
but there are actually revolutions that take place
实际上会产生重大变革
when big discoveries are made.
十年前第一次读这本书
And that really changed my thinking about science
确实改变了我对科学的看法
when I first read this book ten years ago.
所以呢 你可以去audible.com/veritasium
So you can check it out by going to audible.com/veritasium
免费下载 同时也可以试用下Audible的服务
downloaded for free and try out the Audible service.
感谢Audible的赞助支持 感谢您的收看
I want to thank Audible for supporting me and I want to thank you for watching.

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视频概述

华氏温标的创造历程?华氏温度计上各种数字有什么含义?一起来看看了解下吧

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翻译译者

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LgrXd0NM2y8

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