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来看前沿科学是如何解释抑郁症的 – 译学馆
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来看前沿科学是如何解释抑郁症的

What the best science really says about depression | Johann Hari

I kept learning intellectually about what causes depression and anxiety.
我一直在理性探索抑郁症和焦虑症的成因
And that it ’ s much deeper
这个问题比较深奥
than the story I ’ d been told by my doctor—that it ’ s
而我的医生所持有的见解则比较简单
just a missing chemical in your brain.
他将抑郁症归因于大脑中缺乏某种化学物质
But I think it really emotionally fell
但当我遇到德里克·萨默菲尔德——
into place when I went and met an incredible South
一位南非的优秀精神病学医生时
African psychiatrist called Derek Summerfield.
我就开始思考情感上的病因
So Derek was in Cambodia when chemical
化学抗抑郁药物首次被引进到柬埔寨时
antidepressants were first introduced there.
德里克就在柬埔寨这个国家
And the Cambodian doctors didn’t know what they were, right?
柬埔寨的医生根本不知道这些药物是什么
They’d never heard of it.
他们从没听说过
So he explained it to them and they said,
德里克便向他们介绍这种药物 他们却说:
“ Oh, we don ’ t need them.
哦 我们不需要这些药
We’ve already got antidepressants.”
我们已经有抗抑郁药了
And Derek said what do you mean?
德里克问这话是什么意思
He thought they were going to talk about some kind
德里克还以为他们要说
of herbal remedy or something.
草本治疗之类的
Instead they told him a story.
但这些医生却给德里克讲了个故事
There was a farmer in their community who one day,
他们社区有一位农民
a rice farmer, who one day had stood
他是个稻农
on a landmine and had his leg blown off.
他有天踩到地雷 被炸掉一条腿
And so they gave him an artificial limb
所以医生们给他安了假肢
and he went back to work in the fields.
他又继续回到田地里劳作
But it ’ s apparently very painful to work
但戴着假肢在水里劳作
in water when you ’ ve got an artificial limb.
很明显是非常痛苦的
And I imagine it was quite traumatic—
我们可以想象一下他的心理创伤
He ’s going back to the fields where he was blown up.
因为他回去的那片田地正是他被炸断腿的地方
And he started crying all day.
然后他整天以泪洗面
He didn’t want to get out of bed.
连床都不想下
Classic depression, right?
典型的抑郁症 是不是?
And so they said to Derek,
然后这些医生说:
“ Well we gave him an antidepressant. ”
我们给了这个农民一种抗抑郁药
Derek said what did you do?
德里克问是什么药
They explained that they sat with him,
医生说 他们和农民促膝长谈
they listened to his problems,
倾听农民的问题后
they realized that his pain made sense.
他们意识到农民并非无病呻吟
He was depressed for perfectly good reasons.
他的沮丧完全是有原因的
They figured if we bought him a cow
医生说他们给农民买了一头奶牛
he could become a dairy farmer then
让他当个奶农
he wouldn ’ t be so depressed.
然后农民就不沮丧了
They bought him a cow.
给农民买了奶牛后
Within a few weeks his crying stopped, he felt fine.
农民好几个星期都没有大哭过 心情很好
They said to Derek,
医生对德里克说:
“ You see, Doctor,
看见了么 德里克医生
that cow was an antidepressant. ”
奶牛就是抗抑郁药
Now if you ’ ve been raised to think
如果你坚持
about depression the way that we ’ ve been indoctrinated to,
用一直以来被灌输的知识看待抑郁症
that it ’ s just the result
那抑郁症只是…
of – there are real biological factors but it ’ s just
虽然它的成因有生物因素
the result of a chemical imbalance in your brain—
只是人脑中的化学物质失衡导致的结果
that sounds like a joke, a bad joke.
这种说法就像个笑话 真荒谬
They gave the guy a cow as an antidepressant and
把奶牛当抗抑郁药
he stopped being depressed?
然后病人的抑郁症就好了?
But what those Cambodian doctors knew
但是这些柬埔寨医生想必也知道
intuitively is what the World Health Organization has
多年来世界卫生组织
been trying to tell us for years.
对抑郁症下的定义
Depression is a response to things going wrong deep
抑郁症是一种反应
in our lives and our environments.
是当人面对生命深处和外界困扰时作出的反应
Our pain makes sense.
我们的痛苦不是无缘无故的
As the World Health Organization put it,
世界卫生组织指出
mental health is produced socially.
心理健康问题由社交活动引发
It’s a social indicator.
它是一个社会迹象
It requires social as well as individual solutions.
它的解决 有赖于社会方案和个人方案
It requires social change, right?
需要社会的配合 是吧?
Now that is a very different way of thinking
现在针对抑郁症和焦虑症
about depression and anxiety but it happens
有一种与众不同的想法
to fit with the best scientific evidence.
但这个想法有一定的科学依据
And it really required me to reassess how
即我们要重新评价一下
I ’ d felt about my own pain and how I tried
我如何感知自己的痛苦
to deal it unsuccessfully and open up a whole different way
我如何在它面前节节败退
of responding to my depression
然后开启了一种完全不同的
and anxiety that worked for me.
回应抑郁症和焦虑症的方式
And I think as the World Health Organization says and the UN says,
我认为正如联合国世界卫生组织所说
if we talk less about
如果我们把关注的重点
chemical imbalances and more about power imbalances
从化学物质失衡转移到力量失衡上
we will get more at the heart of depression
我们就能更接近抑郁症和焦虑症的核心
and anxiety and we’ll find better solutions.
进而找到更好的解决方案
This was such a personal and difficult journey for me.
对我来说 这是一个人的艰难之旅
There were these two mysteries that were really kind
困扰我的是两个难解的问题
of haunting me, and it ’ s a sign of
这代表着
how afraid I was to look into them.
我对深究抑郁症原因的恐惧
I wanted to start doing this seven years
这个过程我花了七年
ago and I figured it would actually be easier
我甚至认为写一本这样的书还比较容易些——
to do a book that required me to go and spend time with the
写一本需要我和墨西哥贩毒集团的 职业杀手待一段时间
hitmen for the Mexican drug
才能写出来的书
cartels instead, which I then did.
我确实也这么做了
And the first was: why was I still depressed?
第一个问题是:为什么我更加沮丧了?
I ’ d gone to my doctor when I was
我十几岁时去看医生
a teenager and I ’ d explained I had this feeling like
我说我感到很痛苦
pain was kind of leaking out of me.
痛苦源源不断地发散出来
I didn’t understand it.
我不明白为什么会这样
I couldn’t regulate it.
我控制不了自己的情绪
I was very afraid of it.
我对此很害怕
I was very ashamed of it.
也非常难为情
And my doctor said,
然后我的医生说:
“We know why you feel this way.
我知道你感到痛苦的原因
There ’ s a chemical called serotonin
因为人脑中有一种化学物质叫血清素
in people ’ s brains and it makes people feel good.
它会让人感到愉快
Some people naturally lack it.
但有些人天生缺乏这种物质
You’re clearly one of them.
你显然就是其中一个
We’ll give you these drugs.
我给你开些药
They’ll boost you back to a normal serotonin level.”
将你的血清素提到正常水平
And I felt such relief when I was give
听完医生的解释我松了一口气
that story and even more relief
听说有药可医时
when I was given the drug.
我简直雀跃了
And for a few months I felt radically better.
之后的几个月我觉得自己彻底康复了
And then this sense of pain started to kind of bleed back in.
但痛苦的感觉又逐渐占据了我的内心
So I went back to the doctor and
所以我又去看医生了
he said, “ We didn ’ t
医生说:
give you a high enough dose. ”
我们给你开的药是低剂量的
I took a higher dose.
然后我加大了药量
Again—got relief again, and the pain came back.
我又松了一口气 但痛苦又不请自来
And I was really in that cycle
然后反反复复
until I was taking the maximum possible dose for 13 years.
13年来我用到了最大剂量
And at the end of it I still felt terrible.
但我的心情依然很抑郁
The second mystery, and to me the much more important one, is:
我搞不懂的第二个更重要的问题是:
why are so many other people
在我们的文化中
in our culture feeling such profound despair and anxiety?
为什么有如此多的人感到深深的绝望和焦虑?
One in five Americans will take a psychiatric drug.
1/5的美国人服用精神药物
One in four middle-aged women in the United States
1/4的美国中年女性
is taking a chemical antidepressant in any given year.
多年来一直服用化学抗抑郁药
And I thought, I began to think,
我认为… 我开始思考
“ Could it really be that just so many people are
真的有这么多人的大脑中
just mysteriously lacking a specific chemical in their brain?
平白无故地缺乏某种特定的化学物质吗?
Why does it seem to be rising so much
如果那就是病因 那为什么患抑郁症的人数
if that ’ s the cause? ”
仍然在上升?
So I forced myself to go on this journey
所以我强迫自己踏上寻找抑郁症病因之旅
over 40,000 miles for my book Lost Connections.
跋涉4万公里 写成《Lost Connections》一书
I met the leading scientists
我拜访了世界前沿科学家
in the world who studied the causes of depression and anxiety
他们负责研究抑郁症和焦虑症的成因
and the solutions.
及解决方案
The first thing I learned is
我了解到的第一个真相是
that story my doctor told me is not true.
我的医生的话并不属实
Professor Andrew Scull
在普林斯顿大学任教的
at Princeton University says
安德鲁·斯卡尔教授表示
it is deeply misleading and unscientific
抑郁症由血清素过低引起这个说法
to say that depression is just caused by low serotonin.
是个很深的误解 非常不科学
Dr. David Healy in Britain says you can’t
英国的大卫·希利说
even say that idea has been discredited because
这个看法是不足信的
it was never credited.
因为从来没被证实过
There was never a time when half of the scientists
这种解释甚至都说服不了
in the field believed that.
该领域的半数科学家
It doesn’t mean there’s no value to chemical antidepressants.
这并不意味着化学抗抑郁药没有价值
There ’ s some value,
它有一定的价值
but what I learned is actually I had been wrong about depression
但我了解到的是 我之前对抑郁症的看法
all my life.
是错误的
Until I went to my doctor when I was a
我十几岁去看医生前
teenager I thought it was “ all in my head, ” meaning
我大脑里想的是:
you’re weak, you’re just not tough enough.
我很脆弱 不够强悍
And then for the next 13 years I thought it was “ all
确诊为抑郁症的后13年
in my head, ” meaning it ’ s a
我想的是:这是由于大脑里的
chemical imbalance.
化学物质失衡
What I learned is: it’s largely not in our heads.
但真相是:真的不关大脑什么事儿
There are real biological factors that can make it worse,
是生物因素让你心情抑郁
but the main causes of depression
但抑郁症和焦虑症的主要原因是
and anxiety are in the way we’re living today.
当代人的生活方式

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视频概述

Johann Hari是英国畅销书作者和新闻工作者。他在本视频中告诉我们关于抑郁症成因的一些误解,其作品《Lost Connections》中详细介绍了抑郁症的成因。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

ABC

审核员

审核员HL

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7ZbPECl16bc

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