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拉伸对你的身体有什么影响?

What stretching actually does to your body ft. Sofie Dossi

感谢CuriosityStream对PPS视频的支持
Thanks CuriosityStream for surporting PPS Digitial Studios.
我不认为我可以做到
I don’t think I will be able to do that.
保持这个动作
So stay like this,
然后这样撑起来
and then lift up like this.
利用这一下来反冲抬起你的腿
Use this momen tunk to kickyour legs up.
尽管你不能做完 但还是要坚持这样
even if you don’t go all the way that on the way yet.
使腿弯曲
And like bend your legs,
看你能否用脚够到你的头顶
and see if you can go to just the top of your head.
开个玩笑
Just kidding.
嘿我是戴安娜
Hey. I’m Diana.
你正在观看的是”理疗女孩”
You’re watching”Physics Girl.”
上周我和柔术表演者以及油管视频主
And last week, I got tohang out with contortionist
苏菲·多西相处了一段时间
and YouTuber, Sophie Dossi.
我们为她的频道做了一些科学实验
We did some scienceexperiments for her channel.
我们相处时
And while we were hanging out,
我意识到作为物理学家
I realized that, as a physicist,
我对拉伸对身体的影响
I know absolutelynothing about what
以及是否有一种科学的拉伸方式
stretching does to yourbody and whether there
能够使身体变灵活一无所知
is a scientifically-supportedway of becoming more flexible.
来了
There is.
继续收看
Stay tuned.
我不知道 所以我去了南加州大学
I didn’t know, so Iheaded over to USC
去见一位生物机械技师以寻求前沿科学的帮助
to meet with a bio mechanist to find out the latest science.
我是迈克尔·罗利
I’m Michael Rowley.
我是运动科学与物理治疗部门
I am a PhD candidatein the division
的一名博士
of biokinesiologyand physical therapy.
我的第一个问题是
My first questionwas, is there something
苏菲有什么异于常人的地方吗?
different about Sophie?
我现在要做一个背弯
I’m just going to get into a back bend,
同时抬起我的脚
and like lift up my feet.
我的天呐
Oh my gosh.
是的没错
yes.yes.
非常不同
Very different.
不过我是说 在生物力学的层面 她有超能力吗?
But I mean, likebiomechanically, does she have a superpower?
有证据表明那些身体高度灵活的人
There’s evidence that peoplewho are hyper flexible–
暂停一下
Quick pause.
超柔性或者是超移动性事实上是一个科学术语
Hyper flexible or hypermobileis actually a scientific term.
有一项测试是用于判定
And there is a test used todetermine whether someone
某人是否高度灵活
is hyper flexible.
它叫做布莱顿分值
It’s called theBeighton score, and I’ll
如果你想要做个测试的话 我会在视频里发链接
link to it in the description if you want to test yourself.
好的
OK.
所以那些身体高度灵活的人
So people who are hypermobile —
与正常值相比 这些人相对有着
Those people have a little bit more relatively
更有弹性的I型胶原质
of the more stretchy collagenthan the type I collagen.
嗯哼
Uh-huh.
我需要一次关于胶原质的快速复习 来吧迈克尔
I need a quick refresher oncollagen. Take it away Michael.
骨头和骨头之间的连接叫做韧带
So a bone to boneconnection is a ligament.
肌肉和骨头之间的链接是肌腱
And then a muscle to boneconnection is the tendon.
肌腱和韧带大部分都是由胶原质
Tendons and ligaments are made up of mostly collagen,
蛋白质的一种 组成
which is a type of protein.
同时胶原质有许多不同的类型
And there’s differenttypes of collagen.
所以肌腱和韧带主要是I型胶原质
So tendons and ligaments haveprimarily type I collagen,
那是一种非常强健的类型
which is a really strong type,
还有一些III型胶原质
and then also some type III collagen,
它们更加地有弹性
which willbe more stretchy,
也许还有一些弹性蛋白
and then may also includesome elastin, which
它们是另外一种非常有弹性的连接物
is another type ofconnective tissue that’s very elastic
and stretchy.
而且这些胶原质之间的比例可以是不同的
So the ratios of thosethings can be different.
明白了
Got it.
那么苏菲的身体组织可能确实
So Sophie might actually havea different material makeup
有独特的的组成成分
of the tissues in her body,
比如说她可能拥有较多的III型胶原质
like she might have more of that type III collagen, which
那会让她做出一些常人无法做到的动作
would allow her to do thingsthat the average person can’t do
事实上我几乎不能再过度伸展了
Fact was, I almost can’toverstretch anymore because I’m
因为我已经完全把自己对折了
just completely in half.
这就像……我已经延伸到了现在的极限
So it’s like I havepushed the limit on that,
我是说你不能……你又不是个灵魂体
like there’s just– I mean you can’t–you’re not a ghost.
你不是个灵魂体
You’re not a ghost.
但是苏菲到底有多灵活呢
But how flexible is Sophie?
是啊
Yeah.
在我开始练习柔术之前 我就已经
Before I startedcontortion, I was always
比同龄的体操运动员更灵活
more flexible thanthat average gymnast. Oh,
甚至比同龄的体操运动员更灵活
than even theaverage gymnast.
是的
Yes.
甚至不是同龄的普通人
Not even the average person.
是的
Yeah.
我小的时候
When I was little,
我常常脚放在头上看电视
I use to watch TV with my feet over my head.
是啊
Yeah.
真的很灵活
That’s flexible.
好的
OK.
但是在生物力学上 你怎么做到这么灵活的
But how do you getflexible biomechanically?
我猜我的第一个问题是 当你伸展的时候
I guess my first questionis, when you stretch,
你身体的哪一部分在伸展?
what parts of your bodyare stretching out?
是啊
Yeah.
所以当你伸展的时候 你将会增强
So when you stretch, you’regoing to increase flexibility
肌肉 肌腱 韧带这些组织的灵活度和偏移度
and excursion in all thosetissues– muscles, tendons,ligaments.
这些最短期 最快 最激烈的效果
The most short-term, thefastest, most acute effects
都将会体现在肌肉中
will be in the muscle.
所以你的肌腱和韧带
So your tendonsand your ligaments
也在拉伸吗?
are stretching out too?
它是如何工作的?
How does that work?
它们看起来非常强健
They seem so sturdy.
我心中急切地
This is getting to the heart
想要知道
of what I really, really want
身体上的这些变化
to know, which is, whatis physically happening
到底是怎么发生的
to all of these tissues?
生理学上这些实际的肌肉部分
The actual piecesof physiology
改变了拉伸的方式 机体将会改变
that change with stretching,the body will change the water
组织中水的含量
content in the material.
这可能是最快速的方式
That’s probably the fastest way.
除此以外 还会产生一些
And then you canalso induce some
存在于肌腱组织里的干细胞
stem cells that still live inthe tendon material themselves.
它们可以分化成更多的细胞
And those can differentiateinto more cells.
产生不同类型的
They can produce more or slightly different types
组织或蛋白质 就像我所说的
of febrile or proteins like that collagen
胶原质一样的东西
that I talked about.

Humph.
所以你的身体可以通过
So your body can changethe material properties
拉伸改变组织成分?
of your tissues by stretching?

Cool.
另外一种方法是你的感觉变了
Another way is that youactually modify sensation.
所以当你一开始拉伸时可能只会感到轻微的疼痛
So you might experience somemild pain the first time
但实际上
you’re going to stretch,but you’ll actually
是你让自己对一天天一周周重复拉伸
desensitize yourself tothat pain over repeated
的疼痛感到麻木而已
stretching multiple daysa week for multiple weeks.
等一下
Hold up.
真的吗?
Really?
是啊
Yeah.
变灵活的一种方式就是对疼痛变得麻木吗?
One way of getting more flexible is just becoming more numb to pain?
事实上这感觉很好
It actually really feels good.
就像一次很好的拉伸
It feels like anice, good stretch.
完全没有痛苦
It doesn’t feel likea hurt stretch at all.
真疯狂
Crazy.
我是没机会了
I have no chance.
另外一种身体变化也伴随着拉伸
Another change thathappens physiologically with stretching,
我们的肌肉有反射循环
our muscles havean alpha-gamma reflex loop.
当你拉伸你的肌肉时
So when you stretch your muscle,
有一种自动信号被发送到了脊髓
there’s this automatic signal that gets sent to the spinal cord.
这并不会传到大脑再传回来
It doesn’t even go upto the brain and back.
脊柱的束缚会让肌肉收缩
The spinal cord then tellsthe muscle to contract.
这种共活化作用对拉伸是不利的 对吗?
That coactivation would bebad for stretching, right?
想象你在拉伸一块肌肉 然后肌肉
If you’re stretching themuscle, and then the muscle’s
会试着把你拉回来
trying to pull back on you.
随着时间的推移 事实上你可以调节这种反射循环
So over time, you can actuallydown regulate that reflex loop,
当你经过了很长一段时间的
and that’s been shown tohappen when you stretch
拉伸后 最终
for long periods of time. Lastly,
你可以真正使肌肉纤维变长
you actually addlength to the muscle fibers.
那是通过添加肌小节做到的
And you do that byadding sarcomeres,
这是肌肉的一种收缩单元
which are sort ofthe contractile unit
它可以产生肌肉的兴奋信号
producing the activecontraction of muscles.
哇哦
Wow.
身体真是太复杂了
Bodies are so complicated.
让我们扼要重述一下
So let’s recap.
拉伸可以改变你肌肉里的水分含量
Stretching can change thewater content in your muscles,
改变细胞分化程度 你感受到的疼痛
stem cell differentiation,how much you feel pain,
取决于肌肉里的反射循环
that alpha-gamma reflexloop from your muscles
和你肌肉纤维的长度
to your spinal cord, and thelength of your muscle fibers.

That’s cool.
现在我知道了你为什么变得更灵活
Now I know what’s going onwhen you get more flexible.
生物力学真是酷 几乎和物理学一样了
Biomechanics is cool, almostas awesome as physics–
也许更有用些 这让我想起了我的最后一个问题
maybe more useful though– whichbrings me to my last question.
科学是怎样看待如何变得更灵活呢?
What does science have to say about how to get more flexible? Well,
迈克尔为我指出了这个有趣的数据分析
Michael pointed meto this really interesting meta-analysis,
就像是一个综合了
which is likea big study that actually
其他研究成果的一个大项目
synthesizes all thefindings from other studies,
具体来说 是其他23项研究
in this case, 23other studies, which
就是在观察如何在提升关节活动度或灵活度
looked at how to get the bestbenefits on improved range
的情况下得到最大的益处
of motion, or flexibility.
他们发现静态拉伸
And they found thatstatic stretching,
也就是轻轻拉伸
that is when youease into a stretch
并保持30至60秒
and then hold it for 30to 60 seconds, that’s
是提高关节活动度或灵活度的最佳方法
the best for improved rangeof motion, or flexibility.
至于拉伸量 他们发现每周每个肌肉群
And as far as howmuch to stretch, they found that
five minutes total
拉伸5分钟差不多就是下限
per week of one muscle group was sort of the lower limit.
但是拉伸时间每周
But you didn’t see much more
超过10分钟的话
of a benefit over 10 minutes
效果是不明显的
a week of stretching.
每周6天的拉伸量 效果达到最高
And six days out of the week was the plateau of seeing returns.
因此每天拉伸量越多并不意味着好处越多
So the more you stretch per day doesn’t keep increasing the benefits,
但是 这个频率
but that frequency,
每周六天 然后每周的五分钟
six days a week andthen the five minutes
就是最重要的
total for that week,is what’s important.
因此开始每周6天
So commence operationstretching muscle group
共计5分钟的拉伸吧 现在
for six days a week,five minutes total. Now,
当然 不同类型的拉伸
of course, different types of stretching
有不同的益处 所以我将其他文献的链接
have different benefits, so I will link to
放在视频描述中
some of the other literature in the description.
但是重要的是
But more importantlyin the description
这个视频是我和苏菲一起在她的频道上制作的
is the video that I did over with Sophie on her channel.
我在自己的YouTuber上传了这个视频 而且在我们做的这项挑战中
I channeled my inner YouTuber,and we did a challenge
我所做的科学实验
where all the scienceexperiments I was doing,
苏菲都用她的脚来完成
Sophie had to do with her feet.
她很疯狂
She’s insane.
这真是令人惊讶
It was amazing.
我和她拍摄了很多有趣的录像
I had so much fun filming with her,
那么来看看这个视频
so check out that video
并订阅苏菲的频道
and subscribe toSophie’s channel.
还要感谢USC的迈克尔
And thank you toMichael at USC who blew
他用生物学事实改变了我的想法
my mind with biomechanic facts.
物理学家不能接触到许多生物力学
Physicists don’t get to learna whole lot of biomechanics.
就是这样
And that’s it.
如果你想了解更多的话 订阅”理疗女孩”
Subscribe to Physics Girl if you want to learn more stuff
我会每两周随机选择话题
with me that I’m
和你一起学习
randomly interested inevery couple of weeks.
非常感谢你的观看 理疗愉快
Thank you so much forwatching and happy physicsing.
感谢Curiosity Stream对
I’d like to thank CuriosityStream for supporting
PPS视频的支持
PBS Digital Studios.
她到底是怎么做到的?
How does she do this?
感谢Curiosity Stream对
I’d like to thank CuriosityStream for supporting
PPS视频的支持
PBS Digital Studios.
Curiosity Stream是一个订阅流媒体服务
Curiosity Stream is asubscription streaming service
会提供来自世界上最棒的制片人提供的
that offers documentaries and nonfiction titles
纪录片和实录视频
from some of the world’s best filmmakers,
包括独有原创作品
including exclusive originals.
我想推荐你看“梦想未来”
I would recommend watching”Dream the Future”,
是一个有十九个章的新系列片
which is a new 19-part seriesabout what the future’s going
关于未来会变得怎样
to be like, what’s it going to be
以及当我们做运动时
like when we do sports,
大骨骼会变得怎样
when there’s exoskeletons,and big data–
大数据加上了西戈尼·韦佛对它的叙述
plus it’s narratedby Sigourney Weaver.
还是喘不上气
Still out of breath.
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at curiositystream.com/physicsgirl and use promo code Physics Girl during the sign-up process.
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视频概述

当你在做拉伸时,你知道你的身体内都发生了什么吗?

听录译者

收集自网络

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南有嘉鱼

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1JgBp7dX4AU

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