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社会距离到底是什么&它对心理健康意味着什么 – 译学馆
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社会距离到底是什么&它对心理健康意味着什么

What Social Distancing Actually Is & What it Means for Mental Health

{♫Intro♫}
[开场曲]
Social distancing can be very good —from a public health perspective.
从公共卫生角度来说 社会距离是件好事
It’s a time-honored, low-tech tool
它作为减缓传染病传播的手段
for slowing the spread of contagious pathogens.
历史悠久又不需太多技术
But it can also take a toll psychologically.
但社会距离在心理学上有消极影响
Luckily, there are ways to mitigate these harms.
还好有方法可以减轻它的危害
So you can protect yourself and your community from disease
这样既可以保护个人和社区免受疾病影响
while also protecting your mental health.
同时兼顾心理健康
Social distancing refers to a variety of measures
社会距离指的是通过各种方式
which actually aim to increase the physical distance between people.
来增加人与人之间的身体距离
In fact, some experts have suggested changing the term to
事实上有专家建议
“physical distancing” instead of social distancing.
将社会距离更名为身体距离
And the logic is simple:
逻辑很简单
we’re dealing with an infectious disease
我们面对的是一种
that spreads through contact with a sick person or something they’ve left behind.
通过接触患者或他留下的物品传播的疾病
So, if everyone limits their contact with people and public places,
如果每个人能减少与他人或公共场所的接触
they can limit the spread of the disease in their community.
就能控制疾病在社区的传播
And that, hopefully, will slow or even stop the outbreak.
这样有望减缓甚至阻止疫情的爆发
There are two basic strategies for this.
达成这个目的有两种策略
The first is to keep people who come face-to-face with one another farther apart.
第一 面对面遇到他人时保持较远距离
This usually means avoiding physical contact, like hugging and shaking hands.
通常指避免身体接触 如拥抱和握手
And if sneezes and coughs can launch virus particles up to two meters,
咳嗽和喷嚏最远能将病毒飞沫带到2米之外
then it may help to stay at least two meters away from other people when you’re in public.
所以在公共场合最好与人保持至少2米距离
The second is to limit the size of gatherings.
第二 限制集会人数
This decreases the likelihood that a person who’s infected will be there.
这能降低感染者到场的可能性
That might mean closing schools and canceling events,
意味着可能关闭学校 取消活动
or even shutting down businesses where people tend to gather,
甚至关闭人群容易聚集的商业场所
like bars and movie theaters.
如酒吧和电影院
Or, in the extreme, it may mean following Stay at Home orders,
极端情况下 还可能下达居家令
which literally mean staying home as much as you can,
就是字面上尽可能待在家里的意思
save the very occasional trip to the grocery store
偶尔出门集中采购生活所需
or if you need to seek medical attention.
或是寻求医疗救治
Social distancing comes in handy
不确定社区内谁可能感染的情况下
when you don’t know who in the community might be infected.
社会距离就派上了用场
Like, if people are contagious before they show symptoms,
比如 可能感染者在出现症状前
or if people with very mild symptoms can spread an infection.
或有轻微症状时 就能传染
[social distancing] It’s distinct from two other measures you’ve probably been hearing about:
社会距离不同于另外两种方式 你可能听过
quarantine and isolation,
检疫隔离和医疗隔离
though we are using these things all interchangeably a lot right now.
不过现在这些名词经常互换使用
But technically, Quarantine is
确切来说 检疫隔离指
when you separate people who have been exposed to a contagious pathogen away from people who haven’t,
将接触过传染性病原体的人与未接触过的人分开
and monitor for signs of illness.
并监控发病迹象
And isolation is when you separate people
医疗隔离指
who have a contagious disease from people who do not.
将确诊感染的人与未感染的人分开
You may have also heard of cities, counties, or other large areas
你也可能听过城市 国家或更大范围区域
stopping people from entering or leaving their borders.
禁止人员进入或离开其边界
This is yet another method people have used
这是另一种
to control the spread of infectious disease,
用来控制疫情传播的方式
called a cordon sanitaire.
称为防疫封锁
In all cases, the ultimate goal
在任何时候 任何情况下
is to reduce the total number of people infected at any given moment,
终极目标都是减少感染总人数
or quote “flatten the curve” of the epidemic.
也可以引用流行病学中的说法“压平曲线”
That helps ensure that healthcare facilities have the bandwidth
这有助于确保医疗机构有足够的资源
to give quality care to everyone who needs it.
为每一个有需要的人提供优质服务
But, these measures also have very real costs
但以上控制手段也有代价
—including psychological ones.
包括心理学上的
There are lots of factors at play here,
影响因素有很多
but when it comes to mental health effects,
但在心理健康层面
the main culprits are isolation and uncertainty.
主要的问题是孤独(isolation)和不确定性
Now I know we used “isolation” earlier when talking about public health.
我们前面在讲公共卫生时提到过隔离(isolation)
But isolation as a public health measure
但公共卫生范畴的隔离
is different than feelings of isolation in psychology.
不同于心理学上的孤独感
Those are the negative emotions associated with
这是减少与人接触后
having fewer interactions with other people.
产生的负面情绪
We really feel the loss of our social lives because,
我们会深切体会到社会生活的缺失
well, we’re a social species.
因为 毕竟人是群居动物
There’s lots of research that suggests
大量研究显示
people feel happier when they interact with others.
人在与外界交流时更快乐
And that’s because, for hundreds of thousands of years,
因为千百年来
an individual’s survival has depended on
人的生存都依赖
the nature of their interactions with other humans.
与他人交流的天性
So our brains have evolved
我们的大脑进化到
to find positive social interactions rewarding on the neuronal level.
在神经元层面 能从积极的社交中获得奖励
Even the everyday interactions we have with strangers
甚至每天与陌生人的交流
contribute a surprising amount to our mental wellbeing.
对我们的心理健康都有巨大的贡献
On top of that,
此外
the quickly-changing landscaping of a public health crisis
变幻莫测的公共卫生危机
breeds a lot of uncertainty.
导致了很多不确定性
We have a whole episode on why people tend to have a hard time
如果你想了解更多 我们有专题视频
with uncertainty in general, if you want to learn more.
为何人面临不确定性时往往感到困难
But the short version is
简单来说
a major theme that underlies many of our greatest worries
构成我们最大的忧虑背后一个主要原因是
is fear of the unknown.
对未知的恐惧
And outbreaks are kind of unpredictable by nature.
而疫情爆发在本质上是有点无法预测的
Emerging pandemics may create even more uncertainty
而相比其他危机
than other types of dangerous events
新兴的传染病可能有更多不确定性
because they involve multiple types of risk.
因为它包含了各种各样的风险
On the one hand, your individual risk of personal harm may be low
一方面 虽然根据接触程度 年龄和健康状况不同
—depending on your exposure, age, and underlying health conditions.
你个人的风险水平可能很低
But at the same time,
但与此同时
the risk to your community or country might be huge
你所在的社区或国家面临的风险却可能非常大
like, the high potential that the disease will overwhelm healthcare systems and cripple economies.
比如疫情很有可能导致医疗系统不堪重负和经济减退
It can be hard for the brain to reconcile these seemingly conflicting points of view.
大脑很难让这两个看似矛盾的观点达成一致
And that contributes to uncertainty.
这就增加了不确定性
And speaking of uncertainty…
说到不确定性
It’s also difficult to predict exactly how a pandemic will affect mental health.
要精确预测传染病会如何影响心理健康同样很难
Many of the psychological effects of social distancing
社会距离和其他隔离措施
and other measures are tough to quantify
在心理学上的许多影响很难量化
—like the stresses that come with canceled events and lost income.
比如 活动停止和没有收入导致的压力
Plus, contributing factors are interrelated,
而且这些影响因素之间是相关的
so it’s hard to disentangle one part from everything else that’s going on.
很难把一个因素从剩下所有因素中剥离出来
But researchers have gathered a lot of information in recent years
但SARS H1N1和埃博拉病毒爆发后
—after the SARS, H1N1, and Ebola outbreaks, for example.
研究人员近年来搜集了很多信息
All those studies suggest that public safety measures
这些研究表明 公共卫生措施
often lead to increased rates of depression and anxiety in the community.
往往导致社区里抑郁症和焦虑症的比率上升
Those increases are even higher for people with high exposure, like healthcare workers.
尤其是高暴露人群上升比率更高 如医务人员
And people with certain mental health conditions may be more vulnerable.
而有某些心理健康问题的人更易受影响
Like, if you already have anxiety, depression, or substance use disorder,
比如原有焦虑症 抑郁症 物质使用障碍的人
then social distancing may make it worse.
社会距离会使症状恶化
Or if you have obsessive compulsive disorder,
如果是强迫症患者
it may be harder to manage amid messages about increased handwashing.
将更难应对铺天盖地的提高洗手频率的建议
And the emotional costs tend to increase
随着措施愈加严格
as measures get stricter.
心理健康的代价将更高
Regardless of your specific circumstances, though,
抛开个体的具体环境
there are things that you can do to protect your mental health.
有些通用的方法可以保护心理健康
All the uncertainty jacks up your stress level
不确定性提高了压力水平
—so things that help you relax are great.
所以最好做一些有助于放松的事情
Like, if looking at the news makes you feel anxious,
比如疫情新闻使你焦虑
maybe spend less time with it,
那就不要长时间看新闻
and tune in to just a few reliable sources.
只看一些可信的报道
Even if what you’re reading is accurate,
即使你看的新闻很精确
consuming outbreak-related media may decrease your wellbeing
吸收太多疫情相关的媒体报道也可能有害健康
and perhaps even make you feel sick when you aren’t.
甚至可能使你没病得病
Also, you can try to stay active.
同时也可以使自己保持活力
Exercise is great for relieving symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression.
锻炼身体有利于减轻压力 缓和焦虑和抑郁
Or, you could consider giving mindfulness practice a try.
或者可以试试正念训练
That’s the practice of tuning in to the present moment
正念训练要求专注当下
and accepting your thoughts and feelings without judging them
接受所有想法和感受 不要评价它们
— often with the help of breathing exercises or meditation.
常需要借助于呼吸训练和冥想
It can calm painful emotions and relieve stress,
它可以安抚痛苦的情绪 减轻压力
and it benefits the body and brain in other ways, too.
还对身体和大脑有其他好处
Though, different people can react to it in different ways,
不过不同的人对此有不同反应
so you might want to talk to your doctor first.
做之前最好先咨询医生
Above all, try making an effort to reach out to other people.
最主要的是 试着努力接触外界
Even if it feels like it, you’re really not alone.
尽管感觉被孤立了 其实你并不是一个人
We live in a wonderful time
我们生活在一个好时代
when we can use technology, like video calls, to connect.
可以运用科技 比如视频电话来联系
So you can be social with friends and family electronically!
在电子设备上与亲朋好友交流
And if you can, go outside.
另外 可以的话就出门走走
From a safe distance,
安全距离下
you can talk to your neighbors and even strangers on the street.
与邻居 甚至是路上的陌生人聊聊
You can also reach out to people in need,
你也可以向有需要的人伸出援手
and have some compassion for people whose jobs take them into crowded places
对需要在人员聚集处工作的人多点同理心
— the healthcare workers, grocery store employees, and airline workers
如医务人员 店员 乘务人员
who take care of us every day.
他们每天在服务我们
Helping others pays dividends in both directions:
帮助他人的好处有两面
the giver and the recipient both feel good.
帮助者和被帮助者都能感到快乐
It’s part of our biological programming.
这是我们的生物本能
And all of us should also support the people who get sick
我们所有人都应该帮助患病的人
and those who lose their wages or jobs because of everything going on.
和那些因疫情失去工作和薪水的人
And if you were these people, it could be very hard.
假如你是其中一员 处境肯定很艰难
But people need to know if you are struggling.
但你得让别人知道你在抗争
so don’t hesitate to ask for help.
所以不要迟疑 去向他人求助
This is a time when everyone will be very understanding of that.
这种时候所有人都会非常理解的
This kind of leaning on one another in spite of social distancing
这种在社会距离下的守望相助
may actually make us feel closer
实际上可能让我们拉近距离
and more supported by our friends and loved ones
更能感受到疫情期间和过后
during and after an outbreak.
来自亲人好友的支持和帮助
And remember: You have some level of control here.
记住 你是有一定主动权的
Your actions, from working from home to washing your hands, do matter.
你的种种行为 从居家办公到勤洗手 非常重要
You are protecxting people.
你在保护他人
None of this will completely prevent the pandemic from having an emotional toll;
以上做法不能完全阻止疫情导致的负面情绪
nothing can.
没有办法可以
But they might help reduce some of the negative effects of social distancing.
但它们可以减少隔离措施带来的一部分负面影响
We’re all in this together.
我们在共同战斗
So be kind to one another
请对他人友好一点
—and, especially, to yourself.
尤其是对自己友好一点
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow Psych,
感谢观看本期《心理科学秀》
and thank you to all of our patrons on Patreon
感谢Patreon上所有的赞助人
who make every episode of SciShow possible.
是你们让每一期《科学秀》得以播出
You can learn more about this amazing community of science-loving people at Patreon.com/SciShow.
想了解更多这群热爱科学的人请访问Patreon.com/SciShow
And if you’re looking for more information about the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic,
如果你想了解更多关于SARS-CoV-2病毒的信息
we have some episodes on our main channel that you might find helpful
我们主频道上还有一些视频能帮到你
—they are linked in the description below.
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视频概述

社会隔离等疫情隔离措施对心理健康的影响

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

CidEr酒神

审核员

审核员LJ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9PfOfK234EY

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