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探索伽利略卫星的奥秘 – 译学馆
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探索伽利略卫星的奥秘

What Secrets Are Hiding on Jupiter's Moons?

Jupiter could be considered an independent solar system, only in miniature form.
在微型模式下 木星可以被视为一个独立的太阳系
The gas giant has the same basic ingredients
这颗气态巨行星的基本成分和太阳相同
as the sun and is surrounded by dozens of
并且它周围环绕着几十颗
geologically diverse moons.
地质多样的卫星
Out of the 79 confirmed surrounding Jupiter,
在木星周围已确定的79个卫星中
four ancient moons have astronomers really excited
有四颗古卫星让天文学家兴奋不已
because they offer up some of the most distinctive geology in the solar system,
因为它们拥有一些在太阳系中最为独特的地质现象
including clues of deep, subsurface oceans that could be home to life.
包括可能是生命起源的深海 地下海的线索
The Galilean moons are named after Galileo Galilei,
它们在1610年首次被伽利略观测到
who first observed them in 1610.
并被命名为伽利略行星
lo, Jupiter’s closest Galilean moon,
木卫一 离木星最近的伽利略卫星
is unusual because its composition is closer in comparsion to
它非同寻常 因为它的结构主体
the terrestrial planets than the icy bodies that surround it.
相较与它周围的冰体更接近类地行星
Io is also the most volcanically
木卫一也是太阳系中
active body known in the solar system
已知的火山活跃度最高的天体
with over 400 active volcanoes.
拥有四百多座活火山
This is due to the internal heating produced
这是由于当它绕木星运行时
by the pulling and stretching effect of Jupiter’s
受到木星和较小的邻近卫星的引力
gravity and smaller neighboring moons on Io as it orbits Jupiter.
对它的拉张作用 从而产生内热
That same tug-of-war heating effect is the reason
同样的 这种类似拔河的加热效应
why some astronomers believe that Jupiter’s
也是为什么一些天文学家认为
second Galilean moon is home to a deep subsurface ocean
木星的第二颗伽利略卫星有较深的地下海的原因
up to twice the volume of Earth’s oceans.
其体积是地球海洋的两倍
Unlike Io, Europa has an icy surface,
不同于木卫一 木卫二带有冰层
but below it, astronomers think there may be a
但天文学家认为 该冰层下可能有
salty ocean that could harbor life-bearing chemistry
一片海洋 可以孕育承载生命的化学物质
including organic molecules.
包括有机分子
When Europa swings by Jupiter on an elliptical orbit,
当木卫二在椭圆轨道上饶木星运行时
gravitational tidal forces stretch
引力潮汐力会拉伸 弯曲该卫星的表面
and flex the sides of the moon,
使内部产生摩擦
creating internal friction that essentially heats the moon from the inside out.
本质上是将木卫二从内到外加热
Using its Europa Clipper spacecraft in the 2020s,
美国宇航局计划在本世纪20年代
NASA plans to get a closer look at
使用欧罗巴快艇航天器
the moon in order to confirm the existence of a potential ocean.
对其进行更确切的观察 以确认潜在海洋的存在
Europa’s neighbor, Ganymede,
木卫二的邻居 木卫三
is also believed to have an ocean hidden under its thick icy shell.
也被认为在厚厚的冰层下隐藏着一片海域
The moon’s magnetic field may be affected
该卫星的磁场有可能
by an electrically conducting layer from within,
会受到内部导电层的影响
which hints at the existence of a liquid saltwater ocean.
这说明可能存在液态盐水海洋
But Ganymede’s distance
但是木卫三与木星的距离
from Jupiter means there’s a weaker tidal force at play, so
意味着受到的潮汐力会较弱
it’s less likely that liquid water is present.
所以液态水存在的可能性并不高
The moon is the only one in the solar system
木卫三是太阳系中已知的
known to have a magnetosphere, protecting
唯一拥有磁场的天体
its surface from harmful radiation and solar wind.
它能保护天体表面免受有害辐射和太阳风的伤害
As Jupiter’s largest moon, Ganymede would be considered a planet
作为木星最大的卫星 木卫三如果围绕太阳运行
if it were orbiting the Sun.
会被认为是一颗行星
Out of all four Galilean moons, Callisto is the farthest from Jupiter.
在四颗伽利略卫星中 木卫四离木星最远
The moon is purported to be one
该卫星被认为是
of the most heavily cratered objects in the solar system.
太阳系中陨石坑最严重的天体之一
With some impact basins expanding toabout 2,600 kilometers across,
一些撞击盆地的直径可达2600公里
these craters could
这些陨石坑
teach us a lot about the formation of our early solar system,
可以告诉我们很多关于太阳系早期形成的信息
as astronomers believe
天文学家相信
its surface hasn’t changed in over four billion years.
木卫四的表面在40亿年中没有发生变化
Unmanned spacecraft have been conducting flybys
无人驾驶宇宙飞船已经对伽利略卫星
of the Galilean moons for decades and findings
进行了几十年的探测
from these missions suggest an even greater presence of water.
任务中发现的迹象表明 那里可能存在着更多的水
Along with NASA’s Europa Clipper,
跟随着美国宇航局的欧罗巴航天器
the European Space Agency’s JUpiter ICy moons Explorer
欧洲航天局的木星冰月探险家卡布利卡
aka JUICE will gain a deeper understanding of the moons’mysterious properties.
将对该卫星的神秘特性有更深入的了解
But getting to these moons will be no small feat
但要抵达这些卫星都是不小的挑战
since the craft will need to slingshot
因为航天器需要在绕日轨道中
around the Sun and then travel about 800 million kilometers
加速弹射 然后围绕太阳飞行八亿公里
before being caught by Jupiter’s massive gravitational pull.
才能被木星巨大的引力捕获
If the spacecraft can survive this arduous journey
如果航天器能在这段旅途中幸存下来
and manage to generate enough energy to travel between the moons,
并拥有足够的能量在卫星间航行
astronomers will gain an unparalleled glimpse into what lies
天文学家将窥见隐藏在深处的
beneath their surfaces,
奇特的奥秘
which could even result in the discovery of the
甚至可能发现在地球之外的
first forms of life beyond Earth.
另一种生命形式
Space Crafts takes you through the depths
太空探测器能带你穿过宇宙的深处
of the cosmos, explaining bizarre astronomical
向我们解释奇异的天文现象
phenomena and crazy plans for future exploration.
和未来狂热的探索计划
In this episode, we explain how an advanced civilization could harness
在本集中 我们阐述了现代文明
the total energy of a star.
如何了解星球的奥秘
Thanks for watching Seeker!
感谢收看探索者!
Don’t forget to subscribe.
别忘了订阅

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视频概述

伽利略卫星(Galilean satellites)是木星的四个大型卫星,即木卫一、木卫二、木卫三、木卫四,这些卫星由于各种因素形成独特的地质条件,吸引着人类去探索其中的奥秘

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M8lUgmV6Bhg

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