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亚历山大图书馆到底发生了什么? – 译学馆
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亚历山大图书馆到底发生了什么?

What really happened to the Library of Alexandria? - Elizabeth Cox

2300年前 亚历山大港的统治者打算去实现
2,300 years ago, the rulers of Alexandriaset out to fulfill
人类最具野心的目标:
one of humanity’s most audacious goals:
把全世界所有的知识都集于同一屋檐下
to collect all the knowledge in the worldunder one roof.
全盛时期时
In its prime,
亚历山大图书馆收藏了空前数量的卷轴
the Library of Alexandria housed an unprecedented number of scrolls
吸引了希腊最伟大的一些思想家
and attracted some ofthe Greek world’s greatest minds.
但到公元5世纪末
But by the end of the 5th century CE,
这个伟大的图书馆消失了
the great library had vanished.
很多人认为它在一场大火中被摧毁了
Many believed it was destroyedin a catastrophic fire.
图书馆兴亡的真相极其复杂
The truth of the library’s rise and fall is much more complex.
建造图书馆的想法来自于亚历山大大帝
The idea for the library camefrom Alexander the Great.
在他成为征服者之后
After establishing himself as a conqueror,
这个亚里士多德的校友把自己的注意力转移到
the former student of Aristotleturned his attention
建立一个知识的王国 以自己的名字命名的城市为总部
to building an empire of knowledgeheadquartered in his namesake city.
在建造开始前 他就死了
He died before construction began,
但是他的继任者 托勒密一世
but his successor, Ptolemy I,
执行了亚历山大的计划 建造了一座博物馆和图书馆
executed Alexander’s plansfor a museum and library.
压力山大图书馆坐落在城市的皇家区
Located in the royal district of the city,
其可能是用
the Library of Alexandria may have been built
雄伟的希腊风格柱子建造的
with grand Hellenistic columns,
受到当地埃及文化影响
native Egyptian influences,
或是两者独特的融合——
or a unique blend of the two —
它的建筑风格并没有存留下来
there are no surviving accounts of its architecture.
我们都知道它有演讲大厅 教室 以及
We do know it had lecture halls, classrooms, and,
当然还有书架
of course, shelves.
一俟图书馆建成
As soon as the building was complete,
托勒密一世就着手用希腊和埃及的卷轴去填满它
Ptolemy I began to fill it with primarily Greek and Egyptian scrolls.
他出钱邀请学者在亚历山大图书馆居住和学习
He invited scholars to live and study in Alexandria at his expense.
学者们向图书馆贡献自己的手稿 图书馆逐渐扩大
The library grew as they contributedtheir own manuscripts,
但是亚历山大港的统治者仍然想要
but the rulers of Alexandria still wanted a copy
世界上每一本书的副本
of every book in the world.
幸运的是 亚历山大港是来往地中海的船只的中心
luckily,Alexandria was a hub for shipstraveling through the Mediterranean.
托勒密三世颁布了一项政策
Ptolemy III instituted a policy requiring
要求停驻在亚历山大港的每艘船只
any ship that docked in Alexandria
上交所运输的书籍 用于复制
to turn over its books for copying.
一旦抄写员复制好了文本
Once the Library’s scribeshad duplicated the texts,
他们就留下原文 把副本交还船上
they kept the originals and sent the copies back to the ships.
受雇的书籍搜集者为了寻找新文本
Hired book hunters also scouredthe Mediterranean
也找遍了地中海
in search of new texts,
亚历山大的统治者曾试图通过 禁止出口用来制作卷轴的埃及纸莎草纸
and the rulers of Alexandria attempted to quash rivals
以限制竞争对手
by ending all exports of the Egyptian papyrus used to make scrolls.
这些努力给亚历山大带来了无数书籍
These efforts brought hundredsof thousands of books to Alexandria.
随着图书馆的扩大
As the library grew,
找到比以往任何时候都多的学科信息
it became possible to find information
是很可能的
on more subjects than ever before,
但搜寻任一种特殊学科的信息也更加困难
but also much more difficult to find information on any specific subject. Luckily,
幸运的是 一个来自古利奈的叫作卡利马科斯的学者
a scholar named Callimachus
致力于寻找解决方案
of Cyrene set to work on a solution,
创造出一个包含图书馆内容的120卷目录的彩陶
creating the pinakes, a 120-volume catalogof the library’s contents,
是世界上第一个目录
the first of its kind.
使用彩陶
Using the pinakes,
其他人就能够阅览图书馆的所有书籍
others were able to navigate the Library’s swelling collection.
他们取得了惊人的发现
They made some astounding discoveries.
哥伦比亚航行的1600年前
1,600 years before Columbus set sail,
埃拉托色尼不仅发现地球是圆的
Eratosthenes not only realizedthe earth was round,
而且还计算了地球的周长和直径
but calculated its circumferenceand diameter
与地球真实尺寸只差了几公里
within a few miles of their actual size.
亚力山大的赫伦创造了世界上第一台蒸汽机
Heron of Alexandria createdthe world’s first steam engine
这比工业革命时其重新革新早了一千多年
over a thousand years before it was finally reinvented during the Industrial Revolution.
图书馆公元前283年创立之后约300年 兴盛一时
For about 300 years after its founding in 283 BCE, the library thrived.
但那之后 公元前48年 尤利乌斯•凯撒攻下了亚历山大港
But then, in 48 BCE, Julius Caesarlaid siege to Alexandria
向停在港口的船只放了一把火
and set the ships in the harbor on fire.
数年间 学者都以为在火焰蔓延全城时
For years, scholars believed the library burned
图书馆被付之一炬
as the blaze spread into the city.
火可能烧掉这些林林总总的收藏中的一部分
It’s possible the fire destroyedpart of the sprawling collection,
但我们从古老的记载中得知
but we know from ancient writings
围城之后 学者在随后几个世纪继续参观图书馆
that scholars continued to visit the library for centuries after the siege.
最终 随着城市由希腊到罗马 再到基督徒 最终落到穆斯林的手里
Ultimately,the library slowly disappearedas the city changed from Greek,
图书馆慢慢消失了
to Roman, Christian, and eventually Muslim hands.
每一个新的统治者看了图书馆的目录后都视其为威胁
Each new set of rulers viewedits contents as a threat
而不是一份荣耀
rather than a source of pride.
公元415年
In 415 CE,
基督统治者甚至因为一个叫希帕蒂娅的数学家
the Christian rulers even hada mathematician named Hypatia
研究图书馆里古老的希腊文本而杀了她
murdered for studyingthe library’s ancient Greek texts,
他们认为其行为亵渎神明
which they viewed as blasphemous.
尽管亚历山大图书馆以及无数的文本都消失了
Though the Library of Alexandria and its countless texts are long gone,
我们仍然掌握着最好的收藏方式
we’re still grapplingwith the best ways to collect, access,
并保护我们的知识
and preserve our knowledge.
今天世界上有更多可获得的信息
There’s more information available today
以及更先进的科技来保护它
and more advanced technologyto preserve it,
即便我们不能确定
though we can’t know for sure
我们的数字档案馆比亚历山大的笔墨卷轴
that our digital archives will be more resistant to destruction
更可靠
than Alexandria’s ink and paper scrolls.
而且 即使我们的知识存储在介质上是安全的
And even if our reservoirs of knowledgeare physically secure,
它们仍然必须对抗会使图书馆毁灭的
they will still have to resistthe more insidious forces
潜在的力量:
that tore the library apart:
对知识的恐惧 傲慢的相信过去的就是应该被废弃的
fear of knowledge, and the arrogant belief that the past is obsolete.
不同之处在于 这一次 我们知道为什么而准备
The difference is that, this time, we know what to prepare for.

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视频概述

亚历山大的消亡简史 我们对于知识的态度应该是保护的 尊重的

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

呵呵呵呵

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jvWncVbXfJ0

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