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塞勒姆女巫审判期间到底发生了什么?

What really happened during the Salem Witch Trials - Brian A. Pavlac

[片头曲]
You’ve been accused of a crime you did not commit.
你被指控犯下你不曾犯过的罪
It’s impossible to prove your innocence.
你的清白无从证明
If you insist that you’re innocent anyway,
如果你坚持自己是清白的
you’ll likely be found guilty and executed.
大概率会被定罪并处决
But if you confess, apologize, and implicate others for good measure,
但只要你忏悔道歉 并供出其他人
you’ll go free.
就可以无罪释放
Do you give a false confession
你是愿意作假供词
or risk a public hanging?
还是承担被公开绞刑的风险?
This was the choice facing those accused of witchcraft
这就是1692年2月到1693年5月间
in the village of Salem, Massachusetts
马塞诸塞州塞勒姆村被指控
between February 1692 and May 1693.
使用巫术的村民所面临的选择
They were the victims of paranoia about the supernatural,
他们都是对超自然现象产生妄想的受害者
misdirected religious fervor
错误的宗教狂热下的受害者
and a justice system that valued repentance over truth.
以及忏悔胜于真相的司法体系下的牺牲品
Salem was settled in 1626 by Puritans,
1626年 一群英国的新教徒
a group of English protestants.
也就是清教徒定居塞勒姆
Life was strict and isolated for the people of Salem.
塞勒姆村民的生活戒律严苛 与世隔绝
Battles with their Native American neighbors
他们与美洲土著
and groups of French settlers were commonplace.
和法国殖民者之间的斗争司空见惯
People feared starvation and disease,
人们害怕饥饿和疾病
and relations between villagers were strained.
并且村民们之间关系紧张
To make matters worse,
雪上加霜的是
1692 brought one of the coldest winters on record.
1692年遭遇了有史以来最冷的冬天
That winter, two cousins,
那年冬天 一对表兄妹
9 year old Betty Parris and 11 year old Abigail Williams
9岁的贝蒂·帕里斯和11岁的阿比盖尔·威廉姆斯
started behaving very strangely.
行为开始变得非常奇怪
A physician found nothing physically wrong —
医生找不出任何身体上的问题
but diagnosed the girls as under “an evil hand.”
却诊断她们受到了“魔鬼之手”的控制
Puritans believed that the Devil wreaked havoc in the world through human agents,
清教徒相信撒旦会通过人类使者在世间作恶
or witches, who blighted nature, conjured fiendish apparitions,
或借助女巫 破坏自然 召唤恶灵
and tormented children.
折磨孩童
As news swept through the village, the symptoms appeared to spread.
当消息传遍村庄 症状也蔓延开来
Accounts describe 12 so-called “afflicted” girls contorting their bodies,
据说有12个所谓“染病”的女孩 身体扭曲
having fits, and complaining of prickling skin.
癫痫发作 并抱怨说皮肤刺痛
Four of the girls soon accused
其中四个女孩很快指控
three local women of tormenting them.
当地三个女人在折磨着她们
All three of the accused were considered outsiders in some way.
这三个女人都在某种程度上被视为外人
On February 29th, the authorities arrested Sarah Good,
2月29日 当局逮捕了莎拉·古德
a poor pregnant mother of a young daughter,
一位怀着身孕还要抚养幼女的贫穷母亲
Sarah Osbourne, who had long been absent from church
长期缺席教堂活动的莎拉·奥斯本
and was suing the family of one of her accusers,
此时她正和指控她的其中一家人打官司
and Tituba, an enslaved woman in Betty Parris’s home
以及在贝蒂·帕里斯家做的女仆提图芭
known by her first name only.
人们只知道她的名字
Tituba denied harming the girls at first.
开始时提图芭否认伤害了女孩们
But then she confessed to practicing witchcraft on the Devil’s orders,
但后来坦白自己奉撒旦之命使用巫术
and charged Good and Osbourne with having forced her.
并指控是古德和奥斯本强迫她这么做的
Osbourne and Good both maintained their innocence.
奥斯本和古德都坚称自己是无辜的
Osbourne died in prison,
奥斯本在监狱中死去
while Good’s husband turned against her in court,
而古德的丈夫在法庭上背叛了妻子
testifying that she “was a witch or would be one very quickly.”
说妻子“即使不是女巫 很快也变成女巫了”
Good’s 4 year old daughter was imprisoned
古德四岁的女儿也被关进监狱
and eventually gave testimony against her mother.
并且最终提供了不利于她母亲的证词
Meanwhile, Good gave birth in jail.
与此同时 古德在监狱中生产
Her baby died, and she was convicted and hanged shortly thereafter.
孩子夭折 之后不久她就被定罪绞死了
Tituba was held in custody until May, and then released.
提图芭被拘留到五月 之后被释放
These three victims were just the beginning.
这三个受害者只是个开始
As accusations multiplied, others, like Tituba,
随着指控成倍增加 其他人也像提图芭
made false confession to save themselves.
为了自保而作伪证
The authorities even reportedly told one accused witch
据报道 当局甚至告诉一位被指控的女巫
that she would be hanged if she did not confess,
如果她不认罪 她就会被绞死
and freed if she did.
认罪就可以被释放
They were not particularly interested in thoroughly investigating the charges—
当局对彻查这些指控并没有多大兴趣
in keeping with their Church’s teachings, they preferred that the accused confessed,
为了遵循教义 他们更希望被指控者认罪
asked for forgiveness, and promised not to engage in more witchcraft.
请求原谅 并且承诺再也不从事巫术活动
The court accepted all kinds of dubious evidence,
法院接受一切可疑证据
including so-called “spectral evidence”
包括所谓的“幽灵证据”
in which the girls began raving when supposedly touched by invisible ghosts.
像女孩们被看不见的鬼魂触碰后会胡言乱语
Complicating matters further,
让事情更加复杂的是
many of the jurors in the trials were relatives of the accusers,
审判中的很多陪审员是原告的亲戚
compromising their objectivity.
这破坏了审判的客观性
Those who dared to speak out,
那些敢于坦言的人
such as Judge Nathanial Saltonstall,
比如纳撒尼尔·萨尔顿斯托尔法官
came under suspicion.
受到了他人的怀疑
By the spring of 1693, over a hundred people had been imprisoned,
到了1693年的春天 入狱者已逾百人
and 14 women and 6 men had been executed.
并且有14位妇女和6位男性被处决
By this time, accusations were starting to spread beyond Salem to neighboring communities,
此时 指控已经从塞勒姆蔓延到了邻村
and even the most powerful figures were targets.
甚至最有权势的人都成了被指控的对象
When his own wife was accused,
当妻子受到指控时
the governor of Massachusetts colony suspended the trials.
马萨诸塞殖民地长官暂停了审判
Sentences were amended, prisoners released, and arrests stopped.
修正判决 释放嫌犯 并停止了逮捕
Some have speculated that the girls were suffering from hallucinations caused by fungus;
一些人猜测女孩儿们是因为真菌感染
or a condition that caused swelling of the brain.
或患有让脑肿胀的疾病从而产生了幻觉
But ultimately, the reason for their behavior is unknown.
但最终 她们怪异行为的原因仍然未知
What we do know is that
但明确知道的是
adults accepted wild accusations by children
成年人把孩子胡乱的指控
as hard evidence.
当做了铁证
Today, the Salem Witch Trials remain a cautionary tale
如今 塞勒姆女巫案成为了一个警世故事
of the dangers of groupthink and scapegoating,
警醒着我们团体思维和推诿塞责会有危险
and the power of fear to manipulate human perception.
恐惧的力量会操控人类认知
Weaponized accusations of witchcraft were around for millennia
在塞姆勒女巫案发生的数千年前
befor reaching the village of Salem.
人类已经将对巫术的指控作为武器
Travel to the ancient cituly of Alexandria
我们将前往历史悠久的亚历山大
and follow the tragic story of Hypatia
倾听希帕蒂娅的悲惨故事
a renowned scholar and political advisor
她是一位著名的学者和政治顾问
brought down by a charge of witchcraft.
由于被指控行巫术而引发了最终的悲剧

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视频概述

塞勒姆女巫案是人类历史上最有名的和巫术相关的集体事件,影响深远且惨痛,而其带给我们的警醒也延续至今。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

早早

审核员

审核员CF

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NVd8kuufBhM

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