ADM-201 dump PMP dumps pdf SSCP exam materials CBAP exam sample questions

你使用了多少脑容量? – 译学馆
未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

你使用了多少脑容量?

What percentage of your brain do you use? - Richard E. Cytowic

有个流传很久的说法
An enduring myth says
我们仅开发利用了大脑的百分之十
we use only 10% of our brain
剩下的百分之九十闲置备用
the other 90% standing idly by for spare capacity
推销员宣称通过基于神经科学的方法
Hucksters promised to unlock that hidden potential
可以开发隐藏的潜能
with methods”based on neuroscience,”
但是他们真正打开的是你的钱包
but all they really unlock is your wallet.
三分之二的公众和将近一半的科学教师
Two-thirds of the public and nearly half of science teachers
误信了这个百分之十利用率的说法
mistakenly believe the 10% myth.
19世纪90年代 美国心理学之父威廉姆·詹姆斯
In the 1890s, William James, the father of American psychology
声称 “大部分人都未能开发潜在智力”
Said “Most of us do not meet our mental potential.”
詹姆斯认为这是一种挑战
James meant this as a challenge
并不是大脑使用不足的征兆
not an indictment of scant brain usage
但是这个误解却一直存在
But the misunderstanding stuck
而且 科学家们在很长时间内都没弄清楚
Also, scientists couldn’t figure out for a long time
大脑前庭的作用
the purpose of our massive frontal lobes
或顶骨叶的宽阔区域的功能
or broad areas of the parietal lobe.
这些区域的损伤并不会造成运动或者感觉障碍
Damage didn’t cause motor or sensory deficits,
所以专家认为剩余的90%没有一点作用
so authorities concluded they didn’t do anything.
几十年来 这些部分被称为沉默区域
For decades, these parts were called silent areas,
它们的功能难以捉摸
their function elusive.
我们已经知道 它们强调执行和整合能力
We’ve since learned that they underscore executive and integrative ability
而不具备这些 我们几乎就不能称之为人
without which, we would hardly be human.
它们对于抽象推理 规划
They are crucial to abstract reasoning, planning,
权衡决定和灵活适应环境至关重要
weighing decisions and flexibly adapting to circumstances.
认为大脑的十分之九
The idea that 9/10 of your brain
在脑壳里一直闲置着的想法 是不明智的
sits idly by in your skull looks silly
尤其在我们计算大脑如何消耗能量时
When we calculate how the brain uses energy
啮齿目动物和犬齿动物的大脑消耗整个身体5%的能量
Rodent and canine brains consume 5% of total body energy.
猴子的大脑消耗10%
Monkey brains use 10%.
成年人的大脑
An adult human brain,
仅仅占身体重量的2%
which accounts for only 2 % of the body’s mass,
却每天消耗20%的葡萄糖
consumes 20% of daily glucose burned.
儿童的消耗量是50%
In children, that figure is 50%,
婴儿消耗60%
and in infants, 60%.
这远远超出他们相对大脑尺寸的预期
This is far more than expected for their relative brain sizes,
而大脑的相对大小 与身体的大小成比例
which scale in proportion to body size.
人类大脑重1.5千克
Human ones weigh 1.5 kilograms,
大象大脑重5千克 鲸类大脑重9千克
elephant brains 5 kg, and whale brains 9 kg,
在每千克基础上
yet on a per weight basis,
与其他物种相比 人类拥有的神经元更多
humans pack in more neurons than any other species.
正是这些密集的填充物让我们如此聪明
This dense packing is what makes us so smart.
有一种平衡存在于
There is a trade-off
灵长类动物的身体大小和神经元的数量之间
between body size and the number of neurons a primate,
包括人类在内
including us can sustain.
一只25千克的猿一天要进食八小时
A 25 kg ape has to eat 8 hours a day
以维持拥有530亿神经元的大脑
to uphold a brain with 53 billion neurons.
150万年前 烹饪的发明
The invention of cooking, one and half million years ago,
给我们提供一个极其有利的条件
gave us a huge advantage.
烹饪过的食物更柔软且易消化
Cooked food is rendered soft and predigested outside of the body.
我们的内脏更容易吸收这些能量
Our guts more easily absorb its energy.
比起生吃食物 烹饪能节省时间 提供更多能量
Cooking frees up time and provides more energy than if we ate food stuffs raw
因此我们才能维持
and so we can sustain brains
比猿类多40% 即860亿神经元的大脑的运转
with 86 billion densely packed neurons , 40% more than the ape
那么 它是如何运转的呢
Here’s how it works.
大脑消耗一半的卡路里
Half the calories a brain burns
去保持结构的完整性
go towards simply keeping the structure intact
通过运输钠离子和钾离子穿过细胞膜来维持电荷
by pumping sodium and potassium ions across membranes to maintain an electrical charge
这样 大脑就成了能量的最大摄入者
To do this, the brain has to be an energy hog.
它每分钟消耗3.4×10^21个ATP(三磷酸腺苷微粒)
It consumes an astounding 3.4 x 10^21 ATP molecules per minute,
ATP成为身体能耗的原动力
ATP being the coal of the body’s furnace.
需要高成本去维持
The high cost of maintaining
860亿个神经元之间的静息电位
resting potentials in all 86 billion neurons
这意味着几乎没有剩余的能量
means that little energy is left
去推动信号沿着轴突向下传递并穿过突触
to propel signals down axons and across synapses,
神经放电意味着传递完成
the nerve discharges that actually get things done.
即使只有一小部分的神经元
Even if only a tiny percentage of neurons
某时刻在某一特定区域被刺激
fired in a given region at any one time,
整个大脑产生峰值的能量负担
the energy burden of generating spikes over the entire brain
也是不可持续的
would be unsustainable.
这就是能量有效性的来源
Here’s where energy efficiency comes in.
让一小部分细胞
Letting just a small proportion of cells signal
在任意时间发出信号
at any one time,
即稀疏编码 它使用最少的能量
known as sparse coding, uses the least energy,
但却携带了最多的信息
but carries the most information.
因为这小部分的信号
Because the small number of signals
通过分散自身可以拥有数以千计的路径
have thousands of possible paths by which to distribute themselves.
在大量神经元中 稀疏编码的缺点在于其成本
A drawback of sparse coding within a huge number of neurons is its cost
更糟糕的是 如果大部分细胞未能被激发
Worse, if a big proportion of cells never fire,
那它们会成为多余的
then they are superfluous
进化早就应该抛弃它们
and evolution should have jettisoned them long ago.
解决办法是找寻细胞的最佳比例
The solution is to find the optimum proportion of cells
使大脑能够立即活跃起来
that the brain can have active at once.
为获取最大效率
For maximum efficiency,
1%到16%的细胞在任何时候都应该是活跃的
between 1 % and 16 % of cells should be active at any given moment.
这是我们必须接受的能量极限
this is the energy limit we have to live with
这样我们才能有意识
in order to be conscious at all
保存资源的需要
The need to conserve resources is
是大脑的大多数运作必须发生在意识之外的原因
the reason most of the brain’s operations must happen outside of consciousness.
这就是为什么一心多用是傻子才会干的事
It’s why multitasking is a fool’s errand.
我们只是缺少一次性做两件事的能量
We simply lack the energy to do two things at once,
更不要说同时做三件事五件事
let alone three or five.
和专注于一件事相比 我们同时做几件事时 每一件都做得不够好
When we try, we do each task less well than if we had given it our full attention.
这些数据对我们并不友好
The numbers are against us.
你的大脑很聪明且很强大
Your brain is already smart and powerful.
它强大到需要大量的能量维持其能力
So powerful that it needs a lot of power to stay powerful.
并聪明到需要制定一个能量效率计划
And so smart that it has built in an energy-efficiency plan.
所以 不要因为你可能有个懒惰的大脑
So don’t let a fraudulent myth make you guilty
这种错误的说法而感到内疚
about your supposedly lazy brain.
内疚是在浪费能量
Guilt would be a waste of energy.
了解这些之后 你难道没有意识到浪费能量是愚蠢的吗
After all this, don’t you realize it’s dumb to waste mental energy?
你还要维持数十亿渴求能量的神经元
You have billions of power-hungry neurons to maintain.
所以忘掉它吧!
So hop to it!

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

日常真的使用大脑的10%吗?其余的90%真的是多余的吗?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

雅乐

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5NubJ2ThK_U

相关推荐