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多任务处理对你的大脑有什么影响? – 译学馆
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多任务处理对你的大脑有什么影响?

What multitasking does to your brain | BBC Ideas

With life getting more demanding and hectic all the time
随着生活越发艰难和忙碌
it seems there’s only one way to cope – multitasking!
多任务处理似乎成了唯一的解决方法
Gurus and life hackers make a living telling us how to get better at it.
专家们和生活黑客们以宣扬如何更好地处理多任务为生
But can we actually multitask?
但我们真的能多任务处理吗?
The term was first used in the ’60s, to describe computer performance.
这一术语最早出现在60年代 用以描述计算机性能
The human brain, though, is not a computer
但人脑不是电脑
and human attention is a very limited resource.
人的注意力是非常有限的
Some psychologists model visual attention as being like a spotlight.
一些心理学家将视觉注意比喻为“聚光灯”
It can only be shone in one direction at any one time.
在任意时间只能瞄准一个方向
Our primary focus – what we’re paying most attention to –
我们的主要焦点——即最关注的部分
is like the brightly lit area in the centre of the beam.
就像是光束中央最亮的区域
It can also be understood as being like a zoom lens –
视觉注意也可以理解为变焦镜头
we can choose to narrow our focus to concentrate in detail,
我们能缩小关注点 以便专注于细节
or widen it, to be aware of more things simultaneously.
也能拓宽视野以同步觉察更多事
But we can’t be zoomed in and out at the same time.
但我们不能同时缩小和拓宽视野
Even though we’re constantly receiving a huge amount of information from our senses,
即使我们不断地通过各种感觉接收大量信息
it’s only possible for a small amount to make it through to conscious awareness.
只有一小部分能被感知到
Watch the next section very carefully,
仔细看下面这一部分内容
and pay particular attention to how many balls bounce in the circle.
尤其注意有多少小球弹在圈内
How many can you count? Seven, right?
你数到几个小球?七个对吗?
But did you also notice that little dinosaur?
但你同时注意到这只小恐龙了吗?
What about the changing shape of the circle?
注意到圈的形状在改变吗?
Or the smiley face on one of the balls?
或者看到其中一只小球上的笑脸了吗?
This shows just how powerful focused attention is.
这向我们展示了集中注意的力量
Being able to filter out irrelevant detail is an amazingly useful tool,
过滤不相关的细节是一项很有用的技能
but it means we can miss things that are right under our noses –
但这也意味着我们会错过近在眼前的信息
an effect known as inattention blindness.
这一效应被称为“疏忽性失明”
You can see this very clearly in the famous Invisible Gorilla experiment.
著名的“看不见的猩猩”实验很好地展示了这一点
When asked to concentrate exclusively
当被要求集中注意力观察
on how often basketball players in white pass the ball,
穿白色衣服的运动员拍过了几次球
most people completely miss the gorilla
大多数人完全忽视了
walking across the screen and beating his chest.
拍着胸脯走过屏幕的大猩猩
We just don’t have the capacity to process everything at once.
我们就是没有能力同时处理所有事情
This is a particular problem when we try to multitask.
这是尝试多任务处理时遇到的最大问题
We can switch attention from one task to another and back again.
我们能将注意从一项任务转向另一项并再转回来
But when attention is overloaded, we miss things,
但是当注意超负荷时 我们会错失一些信息
and the result is nearly always that we perform tasks less well
结果往往就是 相比于专注一件事
than we would doing them one at a time.
我们不能很好地完成任务
It’s only truly possible to do two things at once if they require
只有当两件事需求不同的认知资源时
different sets of cognitive resources.
同时处理他们是可行的
For example, it’s totally possible to read a book and listen to music
举个例子 边听音乐边看书
at the same time.
完全可行
Which would suggest that driving while talking on the phone
这可能提示驾驶时打电话是可行的
is not a problem, as long as it’s a hands-free phone.
只要这是免提手机
It’s not that simple though –
但事情没有这么简单
research has shown that while talking on the phone
调查显示 驾驶时打电话
we have a tendency to create mental images,
我们倾向于形成心智图像
and this uses the same visual resources needed for driving.
这一过程使用了开车所需的视觉资源
And if visual resources become too stretched,
如果视觉资源太过延伸
it’s perfectly possible for a driver to look directly at a hazard
很可能驾驶者直视着眼前的危险
but, just like with that little dinosaur, fail to see it.
却并不会看到它 就像那只小恐龙一样
Not everything will make it through to conscious awareness.
并不是所有信息都会被感知到
So multitasking makes us at best, inefficient,
所以多任务处理带来的危害 轻则降低效率
and at worst, downright dangerous.
重则 使我们陷入极大危险
If you’re feeling like you should be doing 17 things at once, remember,
如果你想同时处理17件事 请记住
that’s just not the way your brain is wired.
你的大脑不是这样工作的
Thanks for watching.
感谢观看
Don’t forget to subscribe and click the bell to receive notifications for new videos.
别忘了关注并点击铃铛 以获得更新通知
See you again soon!
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视频概述

随着现代生活节奏加快,越来越多人推崇“多任务处理”。但是,对于人脑来说,这真的是可行的吗?多任务处理会对我们的大脑有什么影响呢?

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tMiyzuO1qMs

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