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中国的长城为何如此雄伟 – 译学馆
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中国的长城为何如此雄伟

What makes the Great Wall of China so extraordinary - Megan Campisi and Pen-Pen Chen

一条由泥土和石块筑成的长达两万公里的长龙
A 13,000 mile dragon of earth and stone
蜿蜒盘据在中国城郊
winds its way throughthe countryside of China
其历史同其自身一般 漫长而曲折
with a history almost as longand serpentine as the structure.
万里长城起源于春秋战国时期
The Great Wall began as multiple wallsof rammed earth
各诸侯国为阻挡北方游牧民族和其他诸侯国的侵略
built by individual feudal statesduring the Chunqiu period
而建造的一段段夯土墙
to protect against nomadic raidersnorth of China and each other.
公元前221年 秦始皇统一六国后
When Emperor Qin Shi Huangunified the states in 221 BCE,
青藏高原和太平洋成为其天然屏障
the Tibetan Plateau and Pacific Oceanbecame natural barriers,
但其北边的山地却不足以抵挡
but the mountains in the northremained vulnerable
蒙古 突厥和匈奴的入侵
to Mongol, Turkish, and Xiongnu invasions.
为了抵御北方的强敌
To defend against them,
始皇帝在前人建造的土墙的基础上
the Emperor expanded the small wallsbuilt by his predecessors,
将分散的连接起来 其他的进行加固
connecting some and fortifying others.
这些城墙西起临洮
As the structures grewfrom Lintao in the west
东至辽东
to Liaodong in the east,
因此被统称为“长城”
they collectively became knownas The Long Wall.
为完成这一工程 始皇帝征召了众多士兵和平民
To accomplish this task, the Emperor enlisted soldiersand commoners,
不过他们并不都是自愿去的
not always voluntarily.
秦朝时期有记录的
Of the hundreds of thousands of builders recorded
数十万长城劳工中
during the Qin Dynasty,
很多都是强制征召的农民
many were forcibly conscripted peasants
还有很多是服刑的罪犯
and others were criminalsserving out sentences.
到了汉朝 长城仍在不断增修
Under the Han Dynasty,the wall grew longer still,
从敦煌延伸到渤海
reaching 3700 miles,
长约6000公里
and spanning from Dunhuangto the Bohai Sea.
在汉武帝统治下 强制劳工仍然存在
Forced labor continuedunder the Han Emperor Han-Wudi,
长城逐渐成为苦难和折磨的代名词
and the walls reputation grewinto a notorious place of suffering.
当时的诗歌和一些传说记载了长城附近
Poems and legends of the timetold of laborers buried
大片埋葬劳工的墓地 甚至城墙之中也有不少冤魂
in nearby mass graves, or even within the wall itself.
虽然城墙内部没有发现人的残骸
And while no human remainshave been found inside,
但附近的一个个墓穴表明当时的确
grave pits do indicatethat many workers died
有大批劳工死于事故 饥饿和过度劳累
from accidents, hunger and exhaustion.
长城令人心生敬畏 却并非不可战胜
The wall was formidablebut not invincible.
成吉思汗及其爱子忽必烈
Both Genghis and his son Kublai
在13世纪蒙古入侵中原之时
Khan managed to surmount the wall
都成功突破了长城这一屏障
during the Mongol invasionof the 13th Century.
1368年 明朝统治时期
After the Ming dynastygained control in 1368,
人们用当地砖窑烧制的砖头和石块
they began to refortifyand further consolidate the wall
对长城再次进行加固
using bricks and stones from local kilns.
加固后的长城高约7米 宽约6米
Averaging 23 feet high and 21 feet wide,
总长约8800千米 每隔一段筑有一个烽火台
the walls 5500 mileswere punctuated by watchtowers.
一旦发现入侵者 各个烽火台就点起火 以烟传信
When raiders were sighted, fire and smoke signals traveledbetween towers
直到援兵到来
until reinforcements arrived.
城墙边缘较小的垛口可供弓箭手搭弓射箭
Small openings along the walllet archers fire on invaders,
较大的垛口则用来扔石块或其他武器
while larger ones were usedto drop stones and more.
然而 改造过的新长城也并非坚不可摧
But even this new and improved wallwas not enough.
1644年 北方满族推翻明朝
In 1644, northern Manchu clansoverthrew the Ming
建立清朝
to establish the Qing dynasty,
蒙古也被纳入其统治范围
incorporating Mongolia as well, Thus,
就这样 中国再一次
for the second time,
被长城试图抵挡在外的民族所统治
China was ruled by the very people the wall had tried to keep out.
大清帝国的边界已延伸到长城之外
With the empire’s bordersnow extending beyond the Great Wall,
长城便失去了作为防御工事的意义
the fortifications lost their purpose.
缺乏常规加固的长城年久失修
And without regular reinforcement,the wall fell into disrepair,
土墙塌陷 砖石被盗去用做建材
rammed earth eroded, while brick and stone were plundered for building materials.
但它的使命还未结束
But its job wasn’t finished.
二战期间
During World War II,
中国用部分长城抵挡日本侵略
China used sections for defense against Japanese invasion,
据说有部分长城如今仍被用于军事训练
and some parts are still rumored to be used for military training.
今天 长城则主要是文化的象征
But the Wall’s main purposetoday is cultural.
长城作为一个世界上最大的人造建筑
As one of the largest man-madestructures on Earth,
于1987年被联合国教科文组织列为世界文化遗产
it was granted UNESCOWorld Heritage Status in 1987.
长城的初衷是为防止外敌入侵
Originally built to keeppeople out of China,
而如今 长城每年都要接待数百万游客
the Great Wall now welcomesmillions of visitors each year.
实际上 大量客流
In fact, the influx
逐渐使长城磨损
of tourists has caused the wall to deteriorate,
中国政府因此制定了相应保护措施
leading the Chinese governmentto launch preservation initiatives.
另一广为流传的说法是 长城是唯一能从太空看见的人造建筑
It’s also often acclaimed as the only man-made structure visible from space. Unfortunately,
这一说法并无依据
that’s not at all true.
在近地轨道 像桥梁
In low Earth orbit,all sorts of structures,
高速公路和机场等各种建筑都能看见
like bridges, highwaysand airports are visible,
长城也只能看见大致轮廓
and the Great Wallis only barely discernible.
而从月球上 就根本看不到了
From the moon, it doesn’t stand a chance.
不过 我们还应该从地球本身出发去研究它
But regardless, it’s the Earthwe should be studying it from
因为直到如今 每隔几年还会发现新的城墙遗址
because new sectionsare still discovered every few years,
这些城墙散落四处 延续着这一人类成就的伟大丰碑
branching off from the main body and expanding this remarkable monument to human achievement.

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视频概述

你了解长城的历史吗?历史上的长城,到底经历了怎样坎坷的命运?

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=23oHqNEqRyo

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