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纹身为什么是永久的 – 译学馆
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纹身为什么是永久的

What makes tattoos permanent? - Claudia Aguirre

纹身经常以危险 叛逆的标志
Tattoos have often been presented in popular media
或时髦青年时尚的标志
as either marks of the dangerous and deviant
出现在大众媒体中
or trendy youth fads.
但随着纹身风格的演变
But while tattoo styles come and go,
并且它们的含义在不同文化中相去甚远
and their meaning has differedgreatly across cultures,
这种操作和文化本身一样古老
the practice is as oldas civilization itself.
修饰性的皮肤标记曾在世界各地的人类残骸上
Decorative skin markings havebeen discovered in human remains
发现过
all over the world,
最古老的发现于公元前6000年秘鲁人木乃伊上
with the oldest found on a Peruvian mummy dating back to 6,000 BCE.
但你有想过纹身真正的作用是什么吗?
But have you ever wonderedhow tattooing really works?
你也许知道皮肤新陈代谢时
You may know that we shed our skin,
每小时大概就会有3-4万个皮肤细胞死亡
losing about 30-40,000skin cells per hour.
就是每天会有一百万个皮肤细胞死亡
That’s about 1,000,000 per day. So,
为什么纹身不会随着皮肤细胞的死亡而逐渐消逝?
how come the tattoo doesn’t gradually flake off along with them?
答案很简单 纹身就是
The simple answeris that tattooing involves
纹到皮肤里层的
getting pigment deeper into the skin
而不是纹在会脱落的最表层的皮肤上
than the outermost layer that gets shed.
纵观人类历史 不同文化的民族
Throughout history, different cultures
会使用不同的方法来纹身
have used various methodsto accomplish this.
但早期先进的纹身工具是模仿
But the first modern tattooing machine
托马斯•爱迪生的雕刻机来制作
was modeled after Thomas Edison’sengraving machine
并通电运行的
and ran on electricity.
目前使用的纹身工具是将
Tattooing machines used today insert tiny needles,
注入颜料的微型针以每分钟
loaded with dye, into the skin
50—3000次的频率刺入皮肤
at a frequency of 50to 3,000 times per minute.
针刺穿皮肤表层时
The needles punch through the epidermis,
使颜料渗入到真皮里层
allowing ink to seep deep into the dermis,
皮肤真皮由胶原纤维 神经 腺体
which is composed of collagen fibers, nerves, glands,
血管以及更多的组织组成
blood vessels and more.
每次针刺穿皮肤时 都会出现一个伤口
Every time a needlepenetrates, it causes a wound
这些伤口提醒身体 皮肤会开始发炎
that alerts the body to beginthe inflammatory process,
并召唤免疫系统的细胞到伤口处
calling immune system cellsto the wound site
开始修复皮肤
to begin repairing the skin.
正是这个过程让纹身持续存在下去
And it is this very processthat makes tattoos permanent.
首先 一种叫做巨噬细胞的特殊细胞
First, specialized cellscalled macrophages
会吞噬入侵的异物 来达到清除感染物的目的
eat the invading material in an attempt to clean up the inflammatory mess.
由于这些细胞会经过淋巴系统
As these cells travelthrough the lymphatic system,
一部分将颜料吞入腹中的巨噬细胞
some of them are carried back with a belly full
被带回淋巴结里
of dye into the lymph nodes
其他巨噬细胞会仍然留在真皮里
while others remain in the dermis.
由于没法将色素处理掉
With no way to dispose of the pigment,
留在巨噬细胞内的颜料在皮肤上仍可看到
the dyes inside them remain visible through the skin.
一部分颜料粒子还会悬浮在
Some of the ink particlesare also suspended
真皮细胞的胶状线粒体里
in the gel-like matrix of the dermis,
但有一些被叫做纤维母细胞的真皮细胞吞噬了
while others are engulfedby dermal cells called fibroblasts.
一开始 也有存留在皮肤表层的颜料
Initially, ink is depositedinto the epidermis as well,
但随着皮肤的恢复 受损的表皮细胞就会脱落
but as the skin heals, the damagedepidermal cells are shed
重新长出新的没有染色的细胞
and replaced by new, dye-free cells
就跟晒伤后恢复一样 皮肤表层的皮会脱落
with the topmost layer peelingoff like a heeling sunburn.
专业的纹身不会出现起泡 结痂这种典型的症状
Blistering or crusting is not typicallyseen with professional tattoos
完整的表层皮肤再生需要2-4周
and complete epidermalregeneration requires 2-4 weeks,
在这段时间内 应避免过度暴露在阳光下
during which excesssun exposure and swimming
而且不要游泳 防止纹身褪色
should be avoided to prevent fading.
然而 真皮细胞在死亡之前 仍然留在原处
Dermal cells, however,remain in place until they die.
它们一旦死亡 就被旁边的新生细胞
When they do, they are taken up,
连同它们内部的颜料一起吞噬掉
ink and all, by younger cells nearby,
因此 颜料还能保留在原处
so the ink stays where it is.
但时间一长 纹身也会自然褪色
But with time, tattoos do fade naturally
因为身体会对色素微粒这些异物做出反应
as the body reactsto the alien pigment particles,
慢慢将其分解 再由
slowly breaking them downto be carried off
免疫系统的巨噬细胞将其带走
by the immune system’s macrophages.
紫外线也能分解这些色素
Ultraviolet radiation can alsocontribute to this pigment breakdown,
尽管擦防晒霜能起到缓解的作用
though it can be mitigatedby the use of sunblock.
然而真皮细胞相当稳定
But since the dermal cellsare relatively stable,
大部分的颜料能一辈子保留
much of the ink will remain deep in the skin
在一个人的皮肤里
for a person’s whole life.
但如果纹身嵌在体内 一辈子都不褪色
But if tattoos are embedded in your skin for life,
有什么方法能清除掉吗?
is there any way to erase them?
在技术方面 是可以的
Technically, yes.
目前 激光被用于穿透皮肤
Today, a laser is usedto penetrate the epidermis
击碎皮肤下不同波长的色素
and blast apart underlying pigmentcolors of various wavelengths,
黑色素是最显眼的目标
black being the easiest to target.
激光将色素块粉碎成
The laser beam breaks the ink globulesinto smaller particles
能被巨噬细胞清除的微小粒子
that can then be cleared awayby the macrophages.
但有些色素较难清除
But some color inks are harderto remove than others,
并会引起并发症
and there could be complications.
有戒于此
For this reason,
洗去纹身还是比纹上纹身困难得多
removing a tattoo is still more difficult than getting one,
但也不是不可能的
but not impossible.
所以纯粹的纹身也不会真的永久存在
So a single tattoo maynot truly last forever,
而纹身出现的历史比任何文化都要悠久
but tattoos have been around longerthan any existing culture.
纹身一直都备受推崇 这使得纹身艺术能够流传下去
And their continuing popularity means that the art of tattooing is here to stay.

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用知识的角度的来解释纹身为什么是永久的

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