未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

辣椒为什么那么辣?

What Makes Spicy Food Spicy? | What The FAQs | NowThis

This is the world’s hottest pepper.
这是世界上最辣的辣椒
The Carolina Reaper is more than 400 times spicier than a jalapeno pepper.
卡罗来纳死神辣椒的辣度是墨西哥胡椒的400多倍
And it’s so hot that it can cause thunderclap headaches
它辣到能引起雷击般的头痛
a medical issue that can lead to hospitalization.
这种情况可能甚至会需要住院治疗
But why and how are people even able to eat this?
但是人们为什么仍然愿意吃这个辣椒呢?
We’re talking to a hot chili specialist
我们采访了一位辣椒专家
to learn more about spicy food
帮助我们了解更多有关辛辣食物的知识
and to understand how some people can handle the heat
以及了解为何一些人能够忍受辛辣
While my body can barely stand it.
而我的身体却完全受不了
为什么我喜欢吃辛辣的食物
Chili peppers have different flavors
辣椒有不同的口味
depending on what family they’re in.
这取决于它们所属的科目
Some have sort of a dusty dry flavor
其中有些是风干的
like a cayenne would be a good example that everybody’s familiar with.
比如 大家都很熟悉的卡宴辣椒
Other chilis like Habaneros or Scotch bonnets
另外一些辣椒 比如哈瓦那或博纳特辣椒
are in a family that’s very tropical fruit-flavored.
则都是属于热带水果科的
They tend to be a little bit hotter
这些辣椒会更辣一点
so they can add a lot of flavor.
它们能为食物添加各样的风味
They also have a stimulating effect on certain receptors in your tongue,
这些辣椒也会刺激你舌头上特定的神经
actually you have them all over your body.
事实上这种神经遍布你全身
That’s why your fingers might burn
所以你手指头会感到灼热
if you rub your face your face might burn.
如果你摸了你的脸 脸也会有灼热感
Originating in South America,
原产于南美洲的辣椒
chili peppers have been grown to flavor food,
6000年来一直被用于
fumigate homes and treat illnesses for 6000 years.
给食物调味 烟熏房屋和治疗疾病
There are 25 known wild species
世界上已知的野生辣椒有25种
and over 50,000 variants
有超过5万个变种
with each pepper giving off a different set of flavors and levels of heat.
每一种辣椒的风味和辣度都不同
Before Columbus sailed the ocean blue in 1492,
在1942年哥伦布进行海上航行之前
peppers were pretty much unknown to the rest of the world.
世界上其他的国家对辣椒了解甚少
Today they’re eaten worldwide
但现在全世界都在吃辣椒
and are a dominant ingredient in lots of cuisines.
它成为了许多菜肴里面的主要调料
The difference between a chili pepper that’s very, very hot and one that isn’t
它们辣度不同 一些非常辣而另一些不是很辣
is the level of a chemical know as capsaisin
原因在于一种名为辣椒素的化学物质的含量
and that is concentrated in the ribs of the chili.
这种化学物质集中在辣椒的筋上
A lot of people think the seeds are the hottest part,
很多人认为 辣椒籽是最辣的部分
but actually it’s in the ribs.
但其实最辣的地方是筋
and the seeds are attached to the ribs
辣椒籽只是附着在筋上
so they pick the heat up just by contact.
所以辣椒籽的辣只是因为跟筋相连
The more capsaicin you have, the hotter the chili will be.
辣椒素吃的越多 辣的感觉越厉害
When capsaicin enters your mouth
当辣椒素进入你的口腔时
it excites pain receptors called TRPV-1
会刺激一种名为TRPV-1的疼痛感受器
which are linked to the sensation of temperature.
这种感受器与温度的感觉有关
So that coughing, burningmouth, runny nose feeling
所以当你吃太辣的时候
that you get when eat something that’s too hot
就会咳嗽 辣嘴巴 流鼻涕
that’s your body’s natural reaction to thinking your mouth is on fire.
这是你嘴巴被辣到时的自然身体反应
The more peppers you eat,
你吃越多的辣椒
the more heat you will be able to tolerate over time.
之后就能承受更辣的食物
When eaten regularly capsaicin depletes substance P
经常食用辣椒素会消耗物质P
a neurotransmitter responsible for sending pain signals to the brain.
这是一种负责向大脑传递疼痛信号的神经递质
And you know there’s this thing,
你会认为
“ Oh I can eat the hottest pepper, I’m so macho”.
“噢 我能吃最辣的辣椒 我是个男子汉”
But you’ve probably been eating them for a long time
但是当你吃了一段时间后 可能就会发现
so your receptor is not able to transmit the messages of pain quite as well.
你的受体不能很好地传递痛感信息了
In Mexico they actually give
事实上在墨西哥
children lollipops and candy that have chili peppers in them
他们给孩子吃含有辣椒的棒棒糖和糖果
to sensitize them
让孩子感到敏感
or I should say
或者我应该说
desensitize them to the capsaicin in the chili pepper
降低他们对辣椒素的敏感度
and you work your way up.
使他们越来越会吃辣
And the interesting thing is that if you stop eating them,
有趣的是 如果你停止吃辣椒了
and this has happened to me
这件事我曾经历过
where I might not eat any
我可能会因为任何原因
for a while for whatever reason,
在某一段时间里不吃任何辣椒
I pretty much have to start over
我几乎不得不重新开始适应
a chili that really wouldn’t have bothered me any more or in the past
本来吃起来已经不辣的辣椒
now is very very hot.
现在吃起来变得非常非常辣
Ready for your fun fact?
你准备好接受有趣的事实了吗?
When you eat hot peppers
当你吃辣椒的时候
capsaicin causes the brain to release dopamine and endorphins,
辣椒素会刺激大脑释放多巴胺和内啡肽
giving you a sense of euphoria
给你一种类似
similar to runner’s high.
跑步者的快感
This could also lead pepper lovers to crave the taste more
这会让辣椒爱好者渴望吃到更多
and even be disappointed when their meal is not spicy.
甚至当他们的饮食不辣时会感到沮丧
The spiciness of peppers is governed by what is called Scovine Units
辣椒的辛辣程度是由一种叫斯氏指数的标准决定的
The Scale was created by pharmacist Wilbur Scolville
这个标准是由药剂师威尔伯•斯科维尔设计的
and its levels are generany related to the capsaisin content of each pepper.
辣度的高低与辣椒中辣椒素的含量有关
The chart ranges from zero to over 16 million
这张图表的辣度指数从0到1600万
with peppers stopping at three million.
辣椒的辣度在0到300万之间
Bell peppers at the bottom;
灯笼椒在最底下
chipotle, jalapeno and tabasco are in the middle
干红辣椒 墨西哥胡椒和塔巴斯科辣椒在中间
and towards the top we have ghost pepper
在接近顶部的地方有鬼椒
and the Carolina Reaper.
和卡罗来纳死神
Capsaicin can even be used in surgery to numb pain.
辣椒素甚至可以在手术中用来麻醉
When place on wounds capsaicin destroys neurotransmitters
在伤口上撒辣椒素会破坏神经递质
that send messages of pain to the brain.
这些神经递质是用来给大脑传递疼痛信息的
Doctors are even trying to develop epidurals that use capsaicin
医生甚至尝试用辣椒素发展硬膜外麻醉剂
so women won’t have to be confined to the bed during childbirth.
使女性的分娩不再局限于床上
Needless to say with all these benefits,
即使吃辣椒有这么多好处
eating hot peppers can still temporarily harm you.
但它还是会暂时地伤害到你
Especially if you’re not accustomed to the heat.
尤其当你不习惯那些辛辣的感觉
They can cause stomach pain, flu-like symptoms
它们会引起胃痛 类似流感的症状
and those thunderclap headaches I mentioned earlier.
以及我之前提到的雷击样的头痛
If you’re trying to get into spicy food approach with caution.
如果你要尝试辛辣食物 一定要谨慎行事
Luckily our friend Bill, has some tips.
幸运的是 你的朋友比尔有一些小贴士
They’re hotter at the stem end
辣椒的茎部末端会更辣一些
because you have the membrane is much thicker at the stem end than down at the bottom.
因为茎端的膜要比底部的更厚
So maybe a good way to start eating is
所以从底部开始吃辣椒
to go down and start at the bottom,
可能是一个更好的方法
or cut the outside of the chili,
或者切掉辣椒外面的部分
you’ll get more flavor,
这样你会感受到更多的味道
I would just start low on that one to ten scale.
我只会按辣度从低到高的顺序开始尝试
I would not start at the very top
而不会从顶部最辣的地方开始吃
because A you could hurt yourself.
首先这种吃法会伤害到你自己
B you might never want to eat a chili pepper ever again.
其次你可能因此再也不想吃辣椒了
I mean there are chili peppers now that are 3500000+ heat units used for medicine.
现在有超过350万热单位的辣椒用于医药
If you eat something too hot don’t worry.
如果你吃了太辣的东西 不要担心
Drink milk, not water.
喝牛奶 不要喝水
As water based liquids
因为以水为基础的液体
will only spread the oily capsaicin
只会把含油的辣椒素
to areas of your mouth that it didn’t reach yet.
扩散到你嘴巴里它还没有到达的地方
Milk contains a protein named casein
牛奶中含有一种叫酪蛋白的蛋白质
that attracts capsaicin molecules,
它能吸附辣椒素分子
wraps around them
将其包裹起来
and then washes them away.
然后把它们冲洗掉
But that’s only milk that comes from mammals,
不过必须是哺乳动物的奶
so if you’re into plant-based stuff like soy, coconut, or almond,
所以如果你喜欢大豆 椰子或者杏仁之类的植物性食物
chances are they won’t do much for you.
它们就没有那么有效果
It’s interesting that you find
有趣的是 你会发现
typical Mexican cuisine is typically served with crema,
经典的墨西哥菜通常会搭配奶油
which is creme fraiche,
也就是法式酸奶油
kind of their version of our sour cream
这是我们的酸奶油在墨西哥那里的名字
and there’s a lot of cheese on things also.
他们的菜里也会有很多奶酪
So yes the Spanish brought the cheese to Mexico
是的 西班牙人把奶酪带到墨西哥
and anybody would embrace cheese who could get their hands on cheese.
任何吃到奶酪的人都会爱上奶酪的
But I don’t think it’s coincidences
但是我不认为
that we have crema served on many things and we have cheese served on many things.
很多辛辣食物里有奶油和芝士这件事是一个巧合
So it is a fact, scientifically.
这个现象是有其科学依据的
Well I got my milk, and my Carolina Reaper.
现在桌子上有牛奶和卡罗来纳死神
Let’s eat.
让我们开吃吧
Hey guy, thanks for watching this week’s episode of what the facts.
大家好 感谢收看本周的真相栏目
Hope you enjoyed.
希望你喜欢这期的节目
If you did, make sure you hit the like button
如果你喜欢 请点赞
and subscribe to our channel.
并关注我们的频道
Got a weird about the science question,
如果有好奇的科学问题
shoot your shot, drop a comment below.
动动你的手指 在评论下方留言
And who knows, we might cover it.
也许我们会把它做成一期节目
Be sure to catch more of this season every Tuesday.
记得每周二来看新的节目

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

介绍了辣椒的相关知识以及如何解决辛辣的问题

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

猫最喜欢晴天了

审核员

审核员XY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QpnEjepi55c

相关推荐