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尝试用科学解释同性恋成因

What makes someone gay? Science is trying to get it straight. | #4 of Top 10 2019 | Big Think

同性恋的成因是什么?大家正在尝试用科学解释这个问题
We don’t actually know the extent to which gender
我们并不知道性别在多大程度上
is socially constructed
是由社会建构的
because you can’t do an experiment where you remove
因为我们在做实验时并不能移除
culture and see what happens.
文化因素然后观察结果
So we don’t know
所以我们不知道
to what extent what we see as gendered patterns
我们所看到的性别模式在多大程度上
are the result of sex, biological sex, males and females.
是由性别 生理性别即男和女决定的
We know that
我们知道
gender differs according to culture,
性别因文化而异
but we also know that there are patterns that
但同时就性别角色而言
appear to be fairly universal in terms of gender norms.
似乎存在一些相当普遍的模式
And the ones that are more universal are more likely to
那么越普遍的模式
probably have a sex basis to it, an evolved sex basis,
越可能具有一种性别基础 一种进化了的性别基础
that is to say a biological basis for males and females.
也就是对于男女两性来说 具有生物学基础
So, for example, which gender serves a very important meal
比如在一个非常重要的场合谁来做饭这件事
may be different by different cultures
在各种文化中可能都不同
So in some cultures a man will serve a very important meal versus a woman.
有些文化中 在一个非常重要的场合 就是男人做饭而不是女人
So for example, think about it in the United States that
比如大家想想 在美国
historically speaking the father carves the turkey on Thanksgiving,
按照传统 感恩节的时候一般是父亲切火鸡
but in general women prepare food historically speaking.
然后通常是母亲做饭
So what we know is that these kinds of things can differ by culture,
那么 我们知道这些事可能因文化而异
but that there are some “universals”.
但有一些共同点
And one of the universals we find, for example, is in childhood play,
比如在小朋友的过家家游戏中
that we find that
我们就发现一个共同点
children who are girls tend to do more social play,
女孩们过家家更喜欢模拟社交活动
they tend to do more social role-play.
她们喜欢社会性的角色扮演
Children who are boys tend to do more competitive play,
男孩们更喜欢玩竞争性的过家家
they tend to do more
他们喜欢
play that mimics aggression or that mimics sport
假装互相进攻或模仿体育运动
and mimics sometimes building,
或者假装比赛搭建一些东西
and so there are these kinds of patterns.
那么这些模式是存在的
But that doesn’t mean everybody fits them.
但不是说这些模式可以概括每个人
And it’s really interesting actually too if you look cross-culturally
如果你跨文化看这件事 同样有趣的地方是
scientists find evidence that
科学家们发现一些证据表明
this may have – it’s not just gender,
性别模式不仅跟性别有关
that there’s a sexuality component to it too.
还跟性取向有关
So boys who are going to grow up and be gay,
那些会成长为同性恋的男孩们
and we know who they are because of
当然我们知道他们是同性恋
retrospectively they grow up to be gay,
是回顾了他们的成长过程
they’re what’s called androphilic,
他们被称为androphilic
that is to say they’re attracted to males
即被男性吸引的人
And the majority of females are also attracted to males,
大多数女性也属于被男性吸引的人
so most females are androphilic
所以她们也是androphilic
and a small percentage of boys will grow up to be androphilic.
以及小部分男孩会成长为androphilic
We know that historically speaking, cross-culturally
我们知道从历史和跨文化角度来看
they tend to be more feminine in terms of their interests,
这部分男孩在兴趣方面通常偏女性化
they’re more interested in social role-play,
他们对扮演社会性角色更感兴趣
for example, they’re more interested in helping their mothers,
比如他们更喜欢帮妈妈做事
they’re more interested in associating with girls as young children
小时候更喜欢跟女生在一起玩
and more interested in dressing as girls, for example.
还有的更喜欢打扮成女孩
That doesn’t mean that they are girls,
这不是说他们就是女生
but it does suggest to us that sexuality and gender have interplayed components in them, that
但是这的确表明性取向和性别会相互影响
gender isn’t just about social role
性别不只跟社会角色有关
but it has something to do with sexuality
它还跟性取向有关
and that there’s a reason females end up
男性和女性产生
with these kinds of patterns and males end up with these kinds of patterns
不同的性别模式是有原因的
and when you have a male who’s attracted to males
被同性吸引的男性
he ends up with a little bit more of the female pattern
会偏向女性性别模式
and in some circumstances if you have a girl and she’s attracted to girls
以及有些情况下被同性吸引的女生
she’ll end up with a little bit more of the male pattern in childhood.
童年时会更偏向男性性别模式
So gender and sexual orientation seem to have sort of some connection to each other,
所以性别和性取向似乎存在某种联系
but it’s not a perfect connection in terms of absolute correlation
但它们并不是绝对关联的
and so we can’t say that
所以我们不能说
we can easily predict what would be somebody’s gender role or sexual orientation
我们只通过一些因素就能很容易地判断
simply by looking at some of the components.
一个人的性别角色或者性取向
Evolution would naturally favor heterosexuality
从进化角度看 异性恋是自然选择
because that’s how you get babies.
这样才能繁衍后代
And so if we’re thinking about genes trying to produce genes
所以如果基因要不断自我繁殖
it would make no sense to have genes that
那些让人不育的基因的存在
would lead to people who don’t reproduce,
是完全说不通的
because those genes would not be reproduced.
因为那些基因都是不育的
That said, we know
虽然这么说 但我们知道
cross-culturally gay people exist.
同性恋的确存在于不同文化
So we know that that’s a natural variation in the population.
因此这是人群中一种自然的差异化表现
And so then scientists ask the really interesting question,
然后科学家们提出了那个有趣的问题
Why is that there?
为什么呢?
Why does that not disappear over time?
为什么同性恋没有慢慢消失?
Because at least in theory that should lead to lower reproductive fitness,
因为至少理论上同性恋会导致生殖适度下降
which means it should lead to fewer babies,
也就是会导致后代减少
and so it should fade out
所以从进化角度讲
evolutionarily speaking.
同性恋应该慢慢消失才对
One possibility is that it’s a side effect,
一种可能是这是差异化的一种附带作用
that human variation is good for the species
实际上差异化对人类是有好处的
and so evolution is responding to the situation not by
所以进化的方式并不一定是
reducing necessarily everything that doesn’t work,
减少所有对繁殖没有帮助的事物
but saying “Let’s keep throwing up variation,
而是制造更多差异
and some of it will work in other environments.”
不同环境下不同的差异化个体会生存下来
Being a varied species makes a species more resilient.
差异化让物种适应力更强
So it may be the case that being gay if you’re born that way
所以有可能天生的同性恋
is just a variation on a theme
只是众多差异化的一种
and it will show up every now and then just because variations show up.
他们为数不多的存在只是差异化的一种表现而已
But some scientists find some evidence that
但有些科学家发现一些证据能证明
there may actually be advantages to a family
一个家庭里有一部分同性恋小孩
of having a certain percentage of the children be gay.
可能是有好处的
And this is work done, for example, by Paul Vasey at the University of Lethbridge.
比如阿尔伯塔大学的Paul Vasey做过研究
And he’s been looking at the population in Samoa as well as other places,
他在观察萨摩亚和其他地方的人口
but Samoa has a cultural system that actually
但萨摩亚的文化体系
recognizes that a certain percentage of the boys are going to grow up to be androphilic,
是认同一部分男孩会成长为androphilic这件事的
they’re going to be interested in men sexually.
性方面他们会对男性感兴趣
And they actually have a whole cultural system for it.
这背后还有个完整的文化体系
They have a third gender category called the fa’afafine
他们有一个第三性别叫fa’afafine
and when a boy it becomes evident is that kind of boy
如果一个男孩明显表现出第三性别特征
the child is raised as a girl
就会被当成女孩扶养
and becomes a woman culturally speaking
并成长为文化意义上的女人
but doesn’t change her body at all but partners with men.
她的生理构造不会改变但她会和男性结偶
So in our culture that would be called transgenderism,
我们的文化会称之为跨性别主义
but in this culture it’s a third gender category
但在萨摩亚这是第三性别
that absorbs what in our culture might
这包含了我们的文化里
just turn out to be gay men.
男同性恋的概念
And what Paul has found is that
Paul观察发现
when he looks at the families that have fa’afafine within them,
在有第三性别家庭成员的家庭里
the fa’afafine are not using up a lot of resources,
第三性别者不需要占用很多资源
because they’re not themselves having children
因为他们自己不会有孩子
these are big-family cultures
但是因为萨摩亚是大家庭文化
but they do take their own earnings and they direct it at their nieces and nephews.
所以他们会把挣的钱花在侄子侄女身上
And that means you have more adults
也就是说有更多成年人
producing more resources for a smaller number of children.
为数量相对少的孩子们创造更多资源
So biologically
所以生物学上讲
there may be an advantage for families to have a certain number of gay children
有一定数量的同性恋后代对于家庭可能是有好处的
because those people will not reproduce
因为他们不会有后代
but they will take care of the nieces and nephews.
而且他们会照顾侄子侄女
And so overall
所以总体上来讲
the population, the genetics of the family will be continued on

这个家庭的后代和基因会延续下去
because that family has a genetic advantage.
因为他们有了基因优势
And you know when you think about it we have this sort of stereotype of
思考一下 我们对照顾侄子侄女的
the gay uncle who takes care of the nieces and nephews
同性恋叔叔有这种刻板印象
in terms of providing for them and providing extra resources,
就是他们抚养侄子侄女还提供其他资源
and they’re not spending it on their own kids,
以及不花钱在自己的孩子身上
they’re spending it on their sister’s and brother’s children,
却花在兄弟姐妹的孩子身上
that might be a possible evolutionary explanation for why it is
这样从进化意义上解释为什么
that we see homosexuality persist in the human system.
同性恋长期存在于人类社会中 可能是正确的
It’s also the case, we know from work done by
加拿大的Ray Banchard的研究揭示了
Ray Blanchard in Canada,
另一种可能的解释
that a certain number of men who will grow up to be gay
一定数量的男性成长为同性恋
get that way not through genetics per se,
不是因为受到本身的基因影响
but they get that way in the womb.
而是在母胎中受到影响
So it’s inborn but not genetic. And what happens is, apparently,
所以这是天生的但不是基因决定的
well we know statistically from huge studies now
统计上来讲 从大量的研究中我们发现
if a mother has lots of pregnancies of males
如果一位母亲怀过多个男孩
every successive male will be a little bit more likely to be gay.
越小的男孩是同性恋的概率就越高
So the father down you go in that sibling chain
所以兄弟姐妹中
the more likely it is that the later-born males will be gay.
越小的男孩就越可能是同性恋
This has been studied in many populations in the world, large numbers, and
这个研究是基于全世界大量人口的
it’s rigorous. We know that this is true.
是很严谨的 事实就是这样
So why would that be? Well, it looks like it’s a kind of side effect:
但为什么呢?原因可能来自某种附带作用
the mother’s immune system appears to be reacting to male hormones
似乎是母亲的免疫系统对雄性激素作出反应
and maybe dampening them down a little bit,
并稍微抑制了其含量
and this results in something called the fraternal birth order effect,
这导致了所谓的兄弟顺序效应的产生
which is that later born males
也就是越晚出生的男孩
are more likely to be gay.
越可能是同性恋
It’s a surprising finding
这个发现还蛮惊人的
because it suggests to us that some men are absolutely born gay
因为它表明有些男同性恋肯定是天生的
but not because of genetics,
但这跟基因无关
they’re born gay because of the birth order
而是由他们的出生顺序决定的
in terms of some sort of effect having on a woman’s system,
是他们母亲身体里的某种效应
which is reacting to her children’s system,
对孩子的身体产生了影响
and it only occurs in males, it doesn’t occur in females.
并且这种现象只在男性中存在 女性没有
And that’s part of the reason why the theory is it’s an immune response
该理论认为这是一种免疫反应的部分原因就在这
because it doesn’t occur with females and only occurs with males
因为虽然他们是兄弟姐妹 但只有男性会这样
born out of the same womb.
女性不会
So that’s something I’ve colloquially called womb-gay,
所以我会口语化地称之为母胎同性恋
but it’s called the fraternal birth order effect.
但其实这叫兄弟顺序效应
And I think the evidence is very strong that
我认为的确很多证据都证明
a certain percentage of gay people are born that way.
一部分同性恋是这么形成的
We do not have good evidence that straight people are born that way.
但我们还没有充足证据证明异性恋也是这么来的
We don’t bother to look for that evidence.
我们会继续寻找证据
Straight people have been less interesting to scientists
对于科学家来说研究异性恋是怎么来的
than gay people in terms of where they come from.
没有研究同性恋有趣
And that’s because there’s a heterosexist assumption that straight people
这是因为异性恋都默认他们自己
“require no explanation” and gay people “require explanation.”
不需要被解释 同性恋才需要被解释
I mean in terms of evolution gay people do require an explanation.
从进化角度讲同性恋的确需要被解释
Logically speaking we should say “Well
理论上我们可以说
that’s not a very ‘successful strategy,'” as it’s called in science
同性恋在科学上是一种有点“不成功的策略”
it doesn’t lead to a higher reproductive fitness
因为他们不能提高生殖适度
meaning it doesn’t lead to more babies so
即不能产生更多后代
logically you would want to explain gay people.
所以理论上大家会想去解释同性恋
But it’s also a political issue that
但这同时也是一个政治话题
basically straight people have required no explanation
基本上没有异性恋需要被解释
and gay people have required explanation.
但是同性恋需要被解释
And some of the explanations historically have been
历史上的某些解释
rather unpleasant, like
真的很糟糕 比如
blaming mothers who are frigid
怪母亲冷淡
or overly clingy in the case of being gay
或者太粘小孩导致他们成为同性恋
“over clingy mothers make gay boys.”
“太粘小孩的母亲会让他们变同性恋”
What we know from cross-cultural studies is that gay boys are
跨文化的研究显示同性恋男孩
more interested in being with their mothers than straight boys,
比异性恋男孩更喜欢跟着母亲
and so it’s not that the mothers are more clingy
所以并不是母亲太粘小孩
it’s that the boys are more tolerant of time with their mothers.
是他们更愿意跟母亲待在一起
So we’ve studied much more about gay people than we have studied about straight people,
我们对同性恋的研究远远超过异性恋
and straight people remain largely a mystery as to how they operate.
异性恋的成因现在很大程度上还是个谜
What makes them straight? We don’t really know.
为什么他们是直的?不知道
We also don’t know why gay people are attracted to each other
我们也不知道为什么同性恋会互相吸引
anymore than we know why straight people are attracted to each other.
为什么异性恋互相吸引
We have hints about smells
一些蛛丝马迹表示可能跟气味
and about genetic interactions and about facial symmetry,
基因互作和脸部对称性有关
but we really know very little about
不过关于异性恋和同性恋的成因
why straight people are straight and why gay people are gay
我们真的还了解太少

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视频概述

为什么有的人是同性恋有的人是异性恋呢?来听听性取向背后的科学道理。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Han

审核员

审核员MS

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=STfi9yUjf9E

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